Dissertações/Teses

2022
Dissertações
1
  • LUCILENE PEREIRA DA SILVA SANTOS
  • Dinâmica da vegetação lenhosa de uma floresta de terra preta de índio e uma floresta de terra não preta adjacente no sul da Amazônia

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 29/03/2022


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  • A Floresta Amazônica apresenta diferentes fitofisionomias florestais, que em sua maioria apresentam solos naturalmente distróficos. Dentre as fitofisionomias, ocorre as florestas de Terra Preta de Índio (TPI), que são manchas de solo altamente férteis espalhadas por toda a Bacia Amazônica. As TPIs chamam a atenção pelo fato de terem sido produzidas, em grande parte, por ação de povos indígenas do período pré-colombiano. Devido à elevada fertilidade desse solo, a vegetação difere da vegetação adjacente, tanto na composição florística quanto na estrutura. Entretanto, estudos que visem a dinâmica dessa vegetação são escassos ou inexistentes, especialmente os que comparam em relação à vegetação adjacente. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é comparar a dinâmica da comunidade lenhosa de uma TPI e uma TNP (Floresta de Terra não-Preta) no Sul da Amazônia, no período de três e quatro anos, respectivamente (2017-2020 e 2016-2020). Em TPI e TNP foram estabelecidas parcelas permanentes de 1 ha (100x100m), onde foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP1,30 m) ≥ 10 cm. No segundo levantamento todos os indivíduos foram remedidos e incluídos os recrutas. A floresta de TPI apresentou equilíbrio dinâmico entre mortalidade, recrutamento, perda e ganho em área basal, enquanto TNP apresentou maior dinamismo. Ao mesmo tempo que composição de espécies e a riqueza de espécies difeiru entre as florestas, no entanto TPI apresentou maior área basal (biomassa). Assim, nossos resultados sugerem que as diferenças encontradas entre as florestas, estão relacionadas a melhor fertilidade dos solos de TPI, e que essa floresta está servindo como um freio para o hiperdinamismo na borda Sul da Amazônia.

Teses
1
  • HELLEN KEZIA SILVA ALMADA
  • IMPLICATIONS OF DEFORESTATION IN THE CERRADO-AMAZON TRANSITION FOR CLIMATE REGULATION AND WATER AVAILABILITY

  • Orientador : EDDIE LENZA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Data: 31/05/2022


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  • One of the great challenges of ecosystem ecology today is to understand how climate change and changes in land use and cover affect or have the potential to affect the services provided by native ecosystems, such as climate regulation and water availability, and to understand what are the effects of these changes on the environmental and economic sustainability of urban and rural communities. In this context, Brazilian Conservation Units (CUs) and Indigenous Lands (ILs) have been particularly effective as barriers to deforestation and in providing ecosystem services, including climate regulation. However, deforestation in private areas outside UCs and TIs, known as multiple-use zones (MUs), often adds external pressure that increases disturbance within protected areas. Here, we use recent satellite-based data (2001-2020) to assess how surface temperature [LST], evapotranspiration [ET] and albedo – three key processes for climate regulation – have changed with land use (CUs, ILs, and MUs) and biomes (Amazon, Cerrado) in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. We also evaluated the temporal effects of changes in land use and cover on water flow and availability, in microbasins with steep relief and different levels of native vegetation cover, located in the transition between the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. Our results confirm that, despite multiple stressors, protected areas still play an important role in stabilizing the regional climate, maintaining a higher ET flux, lower LST and lower albedo relative to other land uses. We also showed in this study that the annual and daily flows in steep watersheds depend directly on the percentage of native vegetation, since these flows are always higher in watersheds with higher conversion rates of native vegetation. We found even greater seasonality in the flow of watersheds with the highest percentage of converted area, where storm peaks were always higher and the base flow in the dry season was lower. Our study indicated that deforestation in steep watersheds can compromise water availability in the region, since the replacement of native vegetation promotes peaks in water flow during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season.

2021
Dissertações
1
  • RAYLEEN WHAITI LOPES DA SILVA
  • Orientador : JOAQUIM MANOEL DA SILVA
  • Data: 02/03/2021


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2
  • BRUNO ARAÚJO DE SOUZA
  • Population ecology of Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae) in the Cerrado-Amazonia transition

  • Data: 26/03/2021


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  • The age structure of natural populations is in constant fluctuation due to the influence of genetic, ecological, or environmental factors upon births, deaths, and migratory movements. We investigated the population ecology of Ameiva ameiva to assess the effects of microclimatic variables (temperature and humidity) on the population age structure. We monitored lizards for two years (August 2015 to August 2017) with 25 pitfall-traps along a vegetation gradient in Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We use automatic data loggers in all traps to obtain microclimatic parameters. The first two PCA axes explained 86% of the variation in the microclimate variables, describing an environmental gradient of temperature decrease and humidity increase in the cerrado sensu stricto to cerradão. We found a higher frequency of captures in the cerrado sensu stricto than in the cerradão and in months with low precipitation. A. ameiva showed seasonal reproduction with a low overlap of generations and recruitment in April and an annual life cycle. The spatio-temporal variation in the captures of A. ameiva is primarily influenced by absolute maximum temperature and maximum daily relative humidity. This may be related to the species’ morphological and physiological characteristics, which allows for a wide variety of habitats and enhanced thermoregulation and foraging opportunities.

3
  • SUEIDE VILELA FERREIRA
  • The Araguaia river is for fish?

    Evaluation of fishery based on ecossystem modeling

  • Data: 26/03/2021


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  • Ecosystems provide us with various ecosystem services (direct and indirect), which can produce financial benefits in favor of the economic, ecological and sociological sectors. An example is fishing, as a source of income generation. When fish stocks are extracted outside their allowed size, the result is overfishing, which causes degradation of the ecosystem and can damage the ecological and economic sectors. In this way, our objective was to evaluate the ecosystem and simulate the impact of fishing effort on the biomass of the species of a stretch of the Upper Araguaia River in the years 2013 and 2017, through the construction of a trophic web model. For this, we use the modeling software Ecopath with Ecosim and ecosystemic indicators. As a result, we obtained a model of the trophic web with the target species of fishing in the Upper Rio Araguaia section that presented defined trophic levels, with alternate control in bottom-up (producers and detritivores) and top-down (key species). Ecosystem indicators indicated that fishing had oscillations in focus between the years 2015 to 2017, with catches concentrated in species of trophic level category three, with a fall in predatory species. This shows that fishing is concentrated in different species that are part of the same trophic level. However, the indicators pointed out that this increase is minimal, informing that fishing in the Upper Rio Araguaia section is sustainable. The simulation of fishing efforts in the scenarios between 2013 and 2023 indicated a drop in biomass for future scenarios, compromising five species, three key species: Sorubimichtys planiceps, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum and Piaractus brachypomus. The reduction in the biomass of these species should lead to a decrease in their stock and change the dynamics of the ecosystem. Phractocephalus hemioliopterus and Cichla ocellaris species indicated overfishing with fishing effort in future scenarios. Both are predatory and economically interesting species, and their reduction negatively affects ecosystem services and increases the likelihood of local extinction. In general, the scenario of decline of these species alerts us to the need for sustainable alternatives for the management of fish stocks. In this sense, as much as the indicators show us that fishing in this stretch of the Upper Araguaia River is currently sustainable, there is still a need to pay attention to fish stocks of commercial interest.

4
  • ALINE CRISTINA FERRAGUTTI
  • Dispersion of tree species fruits and seeds used in forest restoration projects in the Cerrado-Amazon transition

  • Data: 22/06/2021


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  • The characterization of the phenological patterns of tree species is important information for better planning the collection of fruits and seeds in the field, which is key to successful forest restoration projects. In this work we use a database from the Associação Rede de Sementes do Xingu that has 25 groups of seed collectors spread across 17 municipalities in Mato Grosso. This database, that contains information for 142 tree species used in forest restoration actions and the date that seeds were collected in the field during an eight years period (2010-2018), was used to answer three questions: 1) What is the fruits and seed dispersion period for each of these species? 2) What is the spatial and temporal variation in the production of fruits and seeds for these species? 3) Do species with different dispersion syndromes or successional groups differ in terms of the fruit dispersion period? The results showed a group of 12 species with fruit dispersion in 10 or more months of the year. Byrsonima cydoniifolia and Spondias mombin had production in all months of the year, with great spatial variation in the fruit dispersion period. Regardless of the dispersion syndrome or successional group, the number of species producing fruits was higher at the end of the dry period and at the beginning of the rainy period for all species. Most species with small seeds are pioneers and species with large seeds are climaxes. The results show great spatial variability for the period of fruit and seed dispersion in most of the studied tree species, which has important implications for planning seed collection activities at local and regional scales.

5
  • SARAH PEREIRA BARROS
  • Bird community structure determinants in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone.

  • Data: 04/08/2021


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  • The structure of ecological communities can be defined by several biotic and abiotic factors, and the relative influence of those factors on community assembly processes may operate at different spatial scales. In this project, our aim was to understand the ecological and historical processes that determined the structure and assembly of bird communities in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone. To do so, we proposed the following question: which factors act on the beta diversity and phylobetadiversity patterns of bird communities along the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone? We proposed three distinct biological hypotheses: 1) Give the high vegetation heterogeneity of the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, and the associated niche availability, we expect that climatic variables (as a proxy for vegetation heterogeneity) will be more important than geographic distance in determining the spatial variation of communities. Being so, we predict that there will be greater compositional dissimilarity (beta diversity and phylobetadiversity) associated with environmental variables than with geographic distance alone in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone communities, while the opposite will be observed for both Cerrado and Amazon communities. 2) In addition, given the high niche availability, we hypothesize that there will be an accumulation of species from both biomes in ecotone communities, leading to an increase in alpha and phylogenetic diversity in these communities compared to Cerrado and Amazon communities. If that is true, we expect that the environmental predictors will estimate higher values of alpha and phylogenetic diversity in the communities closer to the ecotone. 3) On the other hand, it is possible that the interaction between species (i.e., competition) is a more important biotic filter than the biotic and abiotic filters mentioned above. If this hypothesis is true, we predict that a) the community assembly in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone will be better explained by a mathematical model of competitive exclusion and; b) there will be smaller alpha diversity, but higher phylogenetic diversity in communities in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, since closely related species will tend not to co-occur locally. This study was developed using data from communities distributed in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, including the extensive ecotone between them. For this, we compiled a database with the bird communities of each biome through a wide survey of scientific articles. To investigate beta diversity patterns we use the Generalized Dissimilarity Model (GDM), and also the phylogenetic informed version of the same model, PhyloGDM. In addition, we used a Bayesian hierarchical approach estimated using an Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) algorithm to estimate alpha and phylogenetic diversity in terms of environmental predictors. Finally, to investigate whether the interaction between species (i.e., competitive exclusion) was an important factor determining community assmbly in the region, we used the CAMI (Community Assembly Model Inference) analysis. The results showed that environmental variables, such as seasonality, isothermality and average temperature, were the most important determinants of beta and phylobetadiversity patterns of bird communities in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone. Environmental predictors did not estimate higher alpha and phylogenetic diversity in ecotone communities. The competitive exclusion model was not the most important in the assembly of the ecotone communities, but a neutral model of species accumulation from both biomes. Finally, we conclude that the environmental factors linked to niche diversity associated with vegetation heterogeneity are important factors sustaining bird diversity in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone.

6
  • LAURA VANESSA FERREIRA DOS SANTOS
  • Range size and climatic niche evolution of Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenia).

  • Data: 05/08/2021


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  • Climate is one of the main determinants of species distribution patterns and, together with life history particularities, will also influence species range size. Since the species climatic niches evolve over space and time, they will clearly influence lineage diversification patterns. The more evolutionarily related the species are, they will tend to present higher behavioral, ecological and morphological similarities, and there is also a tendency for species to maintain a climatic niche that is similar to that used by their ancestors. In this work, we investigated the patterns of climatic niche and range size evolution of species of the genus Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenia) under a phylogenetically informed perspective and taking into account their differences in body size. These organisms are highly adapted burrowing animals, which has clear implications on their thermal physiology, since they will be under the restrictions of underground environments for their thermoregulation. In this way, and considering that these are ectothermic animals, their activity patterns are highly influenced by abiotic factors, specifically by temperature and humidity variations. Thus, the burrowing habits might be one of the main determinants that led to the differentiation of climatic niches within the group, since it is directly related to their morphological characteristics and locomotion strategies. Being so, we investigated the correlations among the ecological variables of niche breadth and range size with morphological traits assumed to be determinants of dispersion probability of the species (snout-vent length and body diameter). The analyses were done using all 107 currently recognized Amphisbaena species, while controlling for their evolutionary relationships. Considering the energetical restrictions related to body size, we hypothesized that species depicting small body sizes will tend to have more specialized physiological demands and, therefore, more restricted range sizes and smaller climatic niche breadths. To do so, we compiled data on the distribution and body size of Amphisbaena from the scientific literature, and used genetic data and a philogenetic imputation method to generate phylogenetic hypothesis including the species for which no genetic data was available on GenBank. Our results indicate that larger species tend to depict larger range sizes, and that this pattern has no phylogenetic autocorrelation. These findings are important advances in developing theoretical ecological and biogeographic interpretations on the evolutionary patterns of this group.

7
  • CAMILA SILVA BORGES
  • RESISTÊNCIA TÉRMICA E PARÂMETROS FOTOSSINTÉTICOS EM ESPÉCIES LENHOSAS NA TRANSIÇÃO AMAZÔNIA-CERRADO

  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 14/09/2021


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  • XXXX

8
  • MÁRCIA CARDOSO DA SILVA
  • DINÂMICA PÓS-FOGO E REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL DE UMA ÁREA MINERADA NA TRANSIÇÃO CERRADO AMAZÔNIA

  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 16/09/2021


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  • O fogo pode provocar mudanças na estrutura e na dinâmica das comunidades vegetais do Cerrado. No entanto, ainda sabemos pouco como esse distúrbio afeta a vegetação em áreas revegetadas, e como a regeneração se desenvolve em locais utilizados para extração de cascalho, o que dificulta a restauração e o manejo adequado dessas áreas. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a dinâmica da vegetação de uma área revegetada com sete espécies plantadas em 2013 e analisar a regeneração natural e a similaridade entre a vegetação regenerante (área minerada) e remanescente (entorno). Em 2019, após um intervalo de quatro anos do último inventário, e um ano depois de um incêndio, quantificamos e medimos a altura e o diâmetro de todos os indivíduos sobreviventes, queimados, recrutados, e rebrotados por espécie. As taxas de mortalidade foram elevadas para todas as espécies plantadas, sendo ainda maiores para aquelas de menor porte. Jacaranda cuspidifolia e Astronium fraxinifolium apresentaram reduzida mortalidade e elevados valores em área basal e ganho em biomassa. Por outro lado, Tachigali vulgaris apresentou o maior crescimento e ganho em biomassa por indivíduo. Verificamos que a vegetação regenerante apresenta baixa similaridade florística com a vegetação remanescente, o que pode estar relacionado às difíceis condições encontradas na área minerada. Acreditamos que as espécies plantadas podem ser indicadas para a restauração de áreas cujas condições de degradação sejam similares às do presente estudo. Entretanto, um único evento de fogo pode ser suficiente para atrasar o crescimento das espécies e a regeneração natural, sendo indispensável evitar os incêndios.

9
  • GEANE RODRIGUES DE SOUZA
  • INDIVIDUAL VARIATION IN THE ADVERTISEMENT CALL OF SCINAX FUSCOMARGINATUS (LUTZ, 1925) (ANURA, HYLIDAE): AN ANALYSIS OVER THE YEARS AND OVER THE NIGHT

  • Data: 27/10/2021


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  • For Anurans, vocalizations are strictly important, commonly produced during the breeding season, they are one of the main forms of communication for the group and are used mainly to attract reproductive partners and defend territories. This can serve as a basis for understanding behavioral mechanisms such as individual recognition, sexual selection and energy expenditure of individuals. We analyzed which factors influence the variation of the acoustic parameters, at intra-individual and inter-individual levels of a population of Scinax fuscomarginatus. We assessed the acoustic characteristics of 101 individuals' ad calls over six breeding seasons. We identified that all the acoustic parameters of the announcement song can be used for individual recognition, with the maximum frequency being the most prominent. Both the body condition of the individuals, the temperature of the environment and the reproductive seasons (Time) influenced the acoustic vestments of the advertising corners. We observed that, with the exception of Maximum frequency, all other acoustic parameters were influenced by the ambient temperature negatively (duration of the singing, number of pulses, dominant frequency, minimum frequency) and positively (pulse rate, singing rate). This study provides data on the variation of acoustic characteristics in the species and on these results, we discuss its implications for the evolution of the signal, choice of partner, for taxonomic purposes and function and mechanisms of acoustic communication. We conclude that the high variation can be important for the process of choosing a partner, and sexual selection. As they are less invasive, these study methods can be useful for conservation purposes, as they provide essential information about the population without direct impact.

10
  • TAYNÃ FERNANDES NUNES
  • Assessing tree water stress of species from a Amazonia-Cerrado transitional forest

  • Data: 30/11/2021


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  • The increase in the frequency and intensity of severe droughts can change the structure, productivity and composition of forests by increasing tree mortality rates. Therefore, hydraulic characteristics are fundamental traits to predict potential effects of how climate change may affect forest dynamics. We explore here the variation in stomatal regulation and water vulnerability (P50) and associate these characteristics with the vital rates of tree species in a Cerrado-Amazon transition forest, where water stress is more accentuated. The general objectives of the study were to quantify stomatal regulation strategies in a transitional forest between the Amazon and the Cerrado and to define ecophysiological thresholds that indicate the water vulnerability of different species in the region. The following hypotheses were tested: (i) Tanguro tree species do not fully open their stomata during the day; (ii) the trees in these environments have a hydraulic pathway that is too resistant to embolism; (iii) trees that do not regulate water loss during the day (leave the stomata open) are more likely to die during droughts. We found that: (i) there was low stomatal regulation among species, but that some species manage to reach a high range of mean values of leaf water potential (Ψf); (ii) the average loss of conductivity value (P50) was no less negative than other Amazonian forests; (iii) Resistance to cavitation was positively related to the mortality rate. These results suggest that tree species at Tanguro have different ecological strategies to deal with environmental water stress.

Teses
1
  • THIAGO BARROS MIGUEL
  • EVALUATING THE LATITUDINAL GRADIENT OF ODONATA SPECIES RICHNESS IN CERRADO, TRANSITION AND AMAZON FOREST

  • Data: 23/03/2021


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  • The interest in understanding how species richness per unit area decreases with increasing latitude and elevation extends for over a century and a half, since early naturalists such as Darwin and Wallace began to observe the species distribution patterns. A great number of global patterns of biodiversity variation have been and continue to be explored, such as spatial scale-related richness variation (species-area relationships as well as local-regional richness) and along gradients. through space or environmental conditions. These patterns include: i) latitudinal gradient of species richness (GLRE); ii) the positive correlation between the latitudinal range extent of organisms occurring at a given latitude (Rapoport effect); iii) the relation of the variation in body size along environmental gradients proposed by Bergmann in 1848 (Bergmann clines). The objective of this study is to evaluate the distribution pattern of adult Odonata species in Cerrado, Cerrado-Amazon Transition and Amazon areas testing the existence of the latitudinal gradient in species richness.

2
  • LEONARDO MARACAHIPES DOS SANTOS
  • Impacts of land-use change on the integrity of riparian forests in Amazonia

  • Data: 24/03/2021


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  • Riparian forests are critical in protecting biodiversity and water resources and are a priority for conservation in anthropized landscapes, but fragmentation associated with the expansion of agriculture in the tropics threatens their ecological integrity. In this context, we compared the structure, diversity, and functional attributes of tropical riparian forests within intact watersheds (n=4) and in agricultural landscapes (n=6) in a region of intense soybean production in the southern Brazilian Amazon. We studied riparian forest plots distributed in ten watersheds, ranging in width from 120 to 210 m, with forests in agricultural landscapes maintained to comply with Federal Law 12.651, which deals with the protection of native vegetation. We found that riparian forests in agricultural landscapes had fewer tree and sapling species and had higher proportions of opportunistic and pioneer tree species compared to intact riparian forests. We also found greater variation in tree species composition and greater internal dissimilarity in areas in agricultural landscapes compared to intact forests. Forests closer to streams in agricultural landscapes and watersheds with intact forests were more similar to each other. We analyzed 123 species for their functional attributes, with 52% common to both environments, 27% restricted to agricultural landscapes, and 21% to intact forests. Leaf thickness and potassium concentration were the functional attributes with the greatest phenotypic plasticity for species common to both environments. Species restricted to intact forests had greater specific leaf area compared to species restricted to agricultural landscapes. We further note that in intact forests species tend to adopt acquisitive strategies and in forests situated in agricultural landscapes resource-conservative strategies predominate. Our results suggest that in agricultural landscapes, wider strips than required by Law would be necessary to maintain the structure, diversity, and functional attributes of riparian forest tree species in southern Amazonia. Thus, the minimum 30 m riparian strips required by the Law may therefore be insufficient to prevent long-term changes in the composition, structure, and functional attributes of these forests.

3
  • DOMINGOS LUCAS DOS SANTOS SILVA
  • Biogeography and ecology of ferns in rocky environments of South Amazon

  • Orientador : PEDRO VASCONCELLOS EISENLOHR
  • Data: 21/09/2021


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  • Ferns are associated with humid environments, but they can colonize rocky environments due to the large adaptive plasticity of this group. In this study, we examined floristics, biogeography and conservation issues, and we projected the potential effects of climate change on geographic distribution of ferns from rocky environments collected in plots of 1-ha in rocky outcrops of the Southern Amazon and the contact region between the Amazon and Cerrado domains, Brazil. Considering the sampled species, we compiled their occurrences and conservation attributes from online databases. We predicted the impact of climate change on future (until 2070) potential distribution using eight algorithms, which are based on regression, machine learning, and distance and bioclimatic envelope. We showed that the Pteridaceae family and the Anemia genus (Anemiaceae) seem to be characteristic of rocky environments of the Southern Amazon and in the contact region between the Amazon and Cerrado domains, as they are the most representative taxa. The sampled species have a wide distribution and two are restricted to Brazil. Among the taxa identified, two are classified as “Least Concern” and one as “Vulnerable”; In turn, the other taxa do not have enough data to be included in any conservation category, and such taxa were evaluated by using the extent of occurrence and the area of occupation. We also showed that in future climatic conditions, potential changes will negatively influence the distribution of fern species, with wide or low distribution in the Neotropical region. However, not all fern species will respond similarly. Changes in potential species distribution areas are projected to occur in all sub-regions and transition areas of the Neotropics, as well as in the Amazon and in the transition area between the Amazon and the Cerrado. The potential distribution of some species will become fragmented and with abrupt decline of suitability areas between the current and predicted climate by 2070. Areas with maximum suitability for fern species in the Neotropical region will be essentially restricted to Panama; in the Amazon and Brazilian Cerrado-Amazon transition area, maximum suitability may be restricted to the northern and northeastern regions, respectively. The distribution ranges of fern species imply impacts on the functioning, resilience and structure of the ecosystem and on the diversity of ferns in the Neotropical region.

4
  • ANGELE TATIANE MARTINS OLIVEIRA
  • Mining effects on medium and large mammal species

  • Data: 05/10/2021


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  • Mammalian fauna has intrinsic habits in landscape use, most of which require large areas to perform their vital functions and consequently contribute to the ecosystem by dispersing individuals. Altered landscapes for exploitation of mineral resources suffer from distinct disturbances and impacts. In this regard, we have gathered current knowledge available on the Web of Science and Scopus platforms. We reviewed 39 articles published in journals that addressed the impacts of mining on medium and large terrestrial and arboreal mammal populations. We categorized the articles according to the methodological approach, thus investigating the main information collected between the articles as the main collection methods and identifying the main reported impacts. We describe here trends in the distribution of studies among the countries of the world and, therefore, investigate the indices of human development and per capita income of the respective countries. We analyzed the density of ore points cataloged in the Mineral Resources Data System database between species geographic distribution areas, then showed which species present the highest threat levels due to mining. Among the 153 species recorded in this study, we identified that for 130 of them, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) does not mention that, among the threat relationship to species, mining activities can be impactful and significant. Thus, we suggest the development of new studies especially for species with large knowledge gaps. We also recommend the use of theoretical approaches and environmental suitability modeling to predict if there will be viable conditions for the species analyzed.

2020
Dissertações
1
  • KARLA MONIQUE SILVA CARNEIRO
  • Effect of ant guards on the reproductive output of four myrmecophilic plant species

  • Orientador : ESTEVAO ALVES DA SILVA
  • Data: 28/02/2020


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  • In plant-ant interactions, plants provide extrafloral nectar as a food resource for ants and the latter act as plant guards. Issue less explored in ant-plant studies are (i) the distribution of ants on plant parts; (ii) the ant-plant mutualism on harsh seasons, such as Cerrado’s dry period; and (iii) the effect of ants on fruit set (in comparison to folivory). Here, by assigning plants as either ant-present or absent, we investigated the influence of ants on the fruit production of Bionia coriacea, Cochlospermum regium, Peixotoa tomentosa and Vigna firmula, all of which bloom during the Cerrado’s dry period (May to August). In these plants, the extrafloral nectar season coincides with the flowering phenology. We also recorded the spatial segregation of ants (on extrafloral nectaries, leaves, flowers, stem, buds and fruits) in order to examine its distribution pattern along the day. Camponotus crassus was the only ant species that consistently visited the plants. In general, a marked spatial segregation was noted, with ant visits concentrated on extrafloral nectaries. Ants rarely visited reproductive structure, but even so, ant presence on plants was related with increased fruit set. Plant species with ants experienced up to 55% gains in fruit set, in comparison to ant-absent treatments; nonetheless, in B. coriaceum, ant presence decreased fruit set by 11%. Our data shows that the outcomes of ant-plant relationships cannot be generalized, but in general, ants do benefit their plant partners. To conclude, we report two all new extrafloral nectary plants, C. regium and V. firmula.

2
  • IGOR ARAÚJO DE SOUZA
  • CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPACTS, ADAPTATION AND VULNERABILITY OF SOUTH AMAZON EDGE TREES AT HIGH TEMPERATURES
  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 02/03/2020


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  • Understand the temperatures tolerance limits of plant leaves is essential on a warming planet, especially to predict changes in biodiversity, carbon stock, and interactions between vegetation and climate. Studies assessing the thermotolerance of native tree species are rare, which limits the ability to assess the risks associated with global warming. Here we investigated the leaf thermotolerance, strategies of leaves temperature regulation and possible responses to future warming of coocurrent tree species (Qualea parviflora Mart., Pseudobombax longiflorum (Mart.) A. Robyns, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne e Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth.) Ducke.) in savannas (rocky cerrado and typical cerrado) and a forest (cerradão) on the southern amazonian border. We quantified the 50% loss of photosystem II function, maximum leaf temperature and its variation, air temperature, stomatal conductance and leaf functional attributes. To assess the impacts of future warming, we quantify the current thermal safety margin and future absolute leaf temperatures. Thermotolerance ranged from 46.7 °C to 50.9 °C between species, and was higher for forest individuals. Individuals with lower maximum leaf temperature presented higher thermotolerance, and we observed that different environmental conditions determine different thermotolerance values. We highlight that savanna-grown individuals, even though they have greater efficiency in leaf heat dissipation, are more vulnerable to extreme high-temperature conditions and therefore more likely to be negatively affected by global warming. We observed that thermal limits of some tropical species are near to the maximum temperatures experienced, which presupposes that these species may be severely affected by rising global temperatures. This vulnerability could lead to unexpected and drastic changes in species composition, structure, distribution and interactions that occur in different environments.

3
  • Luciana Januário de Souza
  • EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ON THE LEAF AREA INDEX IN THE AMAZON-CERRADO TRANSITION

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 20/03/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Climate change resulting from deforestation and global warming has been a major cause of biodiversity loss and environmental services in the remaining vegetation of the Amazon/Cerrado transition (ACT) (BONINI 2019). ACT vegetation is hyperdynamic, with high mortality and recruitment rates compared with the central areas of the two biomes (MARIMON et al., 2014). Consequently, these vegetations have great annual seasonality in the leaf area index (LAI) (FREITAG et al., 2018) and high sensitivity to climate variations, especially the extreme drought events recorded in recent years (MALHI et al., 2004; PHILLIPS et al., 2004; DE OLIVEIRA et al., 2017; PEIXOTO, et al., 2017). Therefore, major efforts are needed to fill knowledge gaps and subsidize conservation actions that take into account the ability of ACT forest and savanna species to respond to climate variations (MARIMON et al., 2006; SOLÓRZANO et al., 2012 ).

4
  • IZABEL AMORIM DE SOUZA
  • EFFECTS OF HABITAT LOSS ON SMALL MAMMAL POPULATIONS IN A CERRADO IN SOUTH AMERICA
  • Orientador : DIONEI JOSE DA SILVA
  • Data: 27/03/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Changes in landscape attributes lead to habitat loss, which is the reduction in the amount of native vegetation area available for species to survive and persist in the landscape. These landscape changes, such as habitat degradation, have been a serious problem for small mammals. Thus, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of habitat loss on the abundance, extinction, body condition and functional traits of small mammals along a gradient of fragmented landscapes. Our results show that habitat loss can affect populations of small mammals, leading to population decline, until they reach an extinction threshold. This effect was more evident for Thrichomys pachyurus, who is a habitat specialist, who had both its abundance and occurrence affected as well as his body condition. Rhipidomys macrurus (specialists) showed no significant differences between the landscapes. Gracilinanus agilis (generalist) had a significantly greater abundance in areas with less than 50% vegetation, but its body condition was not affected as well as the other species. Generalists such as Didelphis albiventris and Thylamys macrurus did not show significant effects of habitat loss on any of the variables evaluated. These conclusions will be useful for future decisions on landscape management in this region.

    Changes in landscape attributes lead to habitat loss, which is the reduction in the amount of native vegetation area available for species to survive and persist in the landscape. These landscape changes, such as habitat degradation, have been a serious problem for small mammals. Thus, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of habitat loss on the abundance, extinction, body condition and functional traits of small mammals along a gradient of fragmented landscapes. Our results show that habitat loss can affect populations of small mammals, leading to population decline, until they reach an extinction threshold. This effect was more evident for Thrichomys pachyurus, who is a habitat specialist, who had both its abundance and occurrence affected as well as his body condition. Rhipidomys macrurus (specialists) showed no significant differences between the landscapes. Gracilinanus agilis (generalist) had a significantly greater abundance in areas with less than 50% vegetation, but its body condition was not affected as well as the other species. Generalists such as Didelphis albiventris and Thylamys macrurus did not show significant effects of habitat loss on any of the variables evaluated. These conclusions will be useful for future decisions on landscape management in this region.

     

5
  • JOSIENE NAVES CARRIJO
  • Functional Attributes as Indicators of Ecological Strategies for Savanna and Forest Wood Plants

  • Orientador : EDDIE LENZA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Data: 22/04/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The functioning of plant communities in different habitats depends both on the environment, acting as an environmental filter, and on the functional adjustments of the different species to environmental conditions. There are large gaps in knowledge regarding functional adjustments of vegetation at community and specific level. Therefore, we determine here the functional attributes of woody plants of two savanna environments of the Cerrado Biome occurring on different substrates: 1. Alluvial Cerrado (CA); 2. Typical Cerrado (TC). We hypothesized that the functional attributes of the community and species differ between the two environments, since the substrates of these environments differ in the availability of water and nutrients to plants. We sampled six attributes (LA, LT, SLA, SSD, Btrel and HTOT) from 101 common or exclusive species from each environment. Alluvial Cerrado plants have smaller leaf area and bark thickness, higher specific leaf area and wood density and less relative bark thickness and total maximum height. The species common to both environments have high phenotypic plasticity of attributes. Thus, we conclude that: 1. Thicker leaves, with larger specific leaf area in the Cerrado Alluvial, represent resource acquisition strategy, allowing the maximization of the photosynthetic rate; 2. Smaller and higher density plants have functional adjustments in response to lower water availability; 3. Thicker bark makes the typical Cerrado shrub species more resistant to burning. Thus, the structuring of woody communities in both environments depends on the functional adjustment of plants to water availability and intensity of burning.

6
  • TAYNÁ BARBOZA FERRARI
  • Determinants of the genetic diversity of lizards in the Brazilian Cerrado

  • Data: 22/05/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Geographic patterns of genetic diversity have the potential to provide a better understanding of natural populations demographic trajectory and the evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in complex biogeographic systems. Given the complex recent geologic and climatic history of the Neotropical region, elucidating these mechanisms is essential to provide a more complete evolutionary picture of its biodiversity. Here, we tested the influence of historical, ecological and environmental predictors in determining the genetic diversity of Brazilian Cerrado lizards. To this end, we compared populations that differed in altitude, distance from the center and periphery of the biome, and in areas with distinct stability levels of vegetation distribution over the time. We also used body size as a surrogate for dispersal potential of the different lizard species. We hypothesized that populations at higher altitudes, close to the center of the Cerrado, with larger body sizes and in areas of greater vegetation stability will depict higher levels of genetic diversity. We compiled mitochondrial DNA sequences from previously published works on 34 lizard species collected within the limits of the Brazilian Cerrado. We defined sampling units using the geographic location of the species and a Bayesian implementation of the general mixed Yule-coalescent model (bGMYC), a method that investigates species limits and estimates groups that are potentially evolving separately. Subsequently, we calculated nucleotide diversity, a metric used to measure the genetic diversity of each sample unit, which we termed “populations”. We used the variables altitude, distance to the center of the Cerrado, distance to the margins of the Cerrado, lizard snout-vent length, and the number of times that climatic changes altered the Cerrado landscape in vegetation terms as predictors of genetic diversity in a machine learning multivariate analysis using Random Forests. We also employed two powerful modelling tools (SPDE – Stochastic Partial Differential Equations, and INLA – Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation) to create hierarchical spatial models that allowed the estimation of genetic diversity for non-sampled regions. Our results indicate that populations at higher and lower altitudes have higher genetic diversity compared to populations at intermediate altitudes. In addition, populations further from the Cerrado’s periphery and with smaller body sizes exhibited higher genetic diversity. Finally, genetic diversity values were lesser explained by vegetation stability than any other variable. Hence, the environmental determinants and ecological characteristics of the species better explained the genetic diversity of lizards in the Brazilian Cerrado than the historical stability.

7
  • RODRIGO SILVA BENSI
  • Fruit production in intact and fire-degraded forests in southeast Amazonia

  • Data: 25/06/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • With agricultural expansion in southeastern Amazonia, transitional forest areas between the Amazon and the Cerrado are becoming increasingly degraded. Forest fragmentation tends to increase their vulnerability to fire, one of the main vectors of mortality in tropical forests, and may contribute to the formation of degraded areas, savannization of areas and transformation of the Amazon biome into Cerrado. Here we seek to understand how the fruit production behavior of 81 forest species in the Amazon-Cerrado transition at Tanguro Farm in Querência-MT. We evaluated an area of 150ha divided into three plots, Control, Annual Burn (B1yr) and Annual Burn (B3yr), during a controlled fire experiment (2004- 2010) conducted by the Amazon Environmental Research Institute (IPAM) and after end of the fire experiment (2011-2018), to investigate fruit and seed production in these areas in order to understand how the forest behaves during burning, which is very common in our region. This paper gathers information regarding total production by area over the years, comparison between areas, seasonality and individual production by species. Concluding that the fire increases the mortality of individuals, therefore there is a decrease in the fruiting pattern for the burned areas. Although statistically insignificant we observed differences in areas over the years, differences between production sites such as edge and interior of the forest and changes in individual production by species.

8
  • DEISY MARTINS DOS SANTOS
  • HISTORICAL CONNECTION BETWEEN ATLANTIC FOREST AND AMAZON FOREST: PAST OR PRESENT?

  • Data: 10/07/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • One of the greatest challenges for Conservation Biogeography is to understand the geographic distribution of species, in addition to the ecological conditions in which species are surrounded in their evolutionary and survival capacity. Among these challenges, the Wallacean deficit, which represents the gaps in the knowledge of the geographic distribution existing in most of the taxa, is one of the greatest difficulties presented to ecological studies. Despite the extremely high biodiversity and being an attractive scenario for research, the Neotropical regions, object of the present study, are still little studied, being less understood in their ecological, evolutionary, historical and original aspects. The present study aims to verify the hypothesis that (i) the Amazon Forest and the Atlantic Forest established connection in more recent periods, after the Pleistocene, contradicting the current models of their distribution. For this purpose, the potential distribution modeling of the 3 fauna species indicated above will be used, in order to (ii) point out favorable environments for the occurrence of these species in the Cerrado, through the possible past connection between these biomes of forest formations

9
  • DOUGLAS DA COSTA SANTOS
  • Seasonal fluctuations and spatiotemporal variation of the Trichoptera community in intermittent stream

  • Orientador : RICARDO KEICHI UMETSU
  • Data: 27/08/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Variations in environmental conditions over space and time can affect the structure of the Caddisfly community. Studies that aim to verify seasonal and spatial fluctuations, are able to indicate changes that occur in the environment such as changes in land use, due to variations in the structure of the community, with the substitution of species. The objective of our work was to evaluate the effect of temporal / seasonal and limnological variations on the immature community of Caddisfly along a longitudinal gradient. Our hypothesis is that both the community structure and the limnological variables are affected by environmental variations. This study was carried out in the Bacaba stream, located in the municipality of Nova Xavantina-MT, in a transition area between Cerrado and the Amazon Forest. Collections were carried out over five years (2011 to 2016), with quarterly collections. We collected it in three portions of the stream continuum (nascent, intermediate and mouth) in 100 m linear transections, collecting substrate samples from the margins. The Caddisfly community was affected by both longitudinal (spring, intermediate and mouth), temporal (2011 to 2016) and seasonality (drought and rain) variations. The abundance differed between all the collection points as well as between the dry and rainy periods. The wealth presented a difference between the source and the mouth, being also different between the periods of the year. The composition was also different between the years, with 2016 being the least rich and abundant. Both wealth and abundance showed a positive relationship with dissolved oxygen and a negative relationship with ammonia. The results of this study allowed us to conclude that the immature community of Caddisfly present in Cerrado stream is sensitive to changes in the environment, climate and chemical composition of the water, indicating that they are excellent bioindicators of water quality and can be used in environmental monitoring and water quality for human populations.

10
  • ROSANGELA GAMA STRUTZ
  • Zooplankton community structure streams of gallery forest and streams of veredas in Cerrado regions, Alto Araguaia, Brazil
  • Data: 18/11/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The streams of gallery forest and veredas are two aquatic ecosystems associated with two important phytophysiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado Biome. These ecosystems are little explored with few studies focused on zooplankton fauna. Thus, this study aimed to answer the following questions: (i) What is the composition of zooplanktonic species of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in gallery forest streams and veredas? (ii) Are the richness, density, diversity and composition of zooplankton species of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods different between streams of gallery forest and streams of veredas? (iii) Does environmental variables (limnological and structural) influence the richness, density and composition of zooplankton species in streams of gallery forest and streams of veredas? Data collected between the years 2016 and 2017 from 25 streams of gallery forest and 16 streams of veredas in the Upper Araguaia river basin. The total richness in gallery forest streams was 75 taxa, with 52 taxa from Rotifera, 17 taxa from Cladocera and three orders from Copepoda (Calanoida, Cyclopoida and Harpacticoida). In streams of veredas the total richness was 53 taxa, with 39 taxa of Rotifera, nine taxa of Cladocera and two orders of Copepoda (Cyclopoida and Harpaticoida). The streams of the paths have less richness, less density and diversity and different taxon composition than streams of gallery forest. Only density was significantly related with environmental variables. Conductivity was the most important variable for streams of gallery forest. Meanwhile temperature, depth, flow, stream width and percentage of grasses were more important for streams of veredas. The difference between the richness and the composition of taxa between the two ecosystems may be related to the fact that streams of paths are spatially more isolated.

11
  • LUCAS HEBER MARIANO DOS SANTOS
  • Border and fire effects on community regeneration in a forest in the Amazonia-Cerrado transition

  • Data: 30/11/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Understanding how forests and their edges behave after fire events is of the utmost importance, as it allows for a better understanding of the feedbacks that maintain the process of forest degradation beginning at the edge and advancing into the forest. However, most studies do not consider the interrelationship of disturbance that normally occur. In addition, often in studies of vegetation response to disturbances, studies do not focus on small individuals who can provide direct information about the succession process. In this study we evaluated the effects of three experimental burn regimes (unburned, burned annually and burnt three times) nine years after the last fire, from different distances to an agricultural border and canopy structure using LIDAR metrics on the diversity of two strata (Seedling: <1 cm; saplings: <5 cm in diameter) of the regenerating community of three areas in the Amazon-Cerrado transition using regressions. We found that although burnt stands regained richness compared to unburned control, the composition changed completely with the edge species advancing into the forest, this composition being controlled by the crown characteristics and distance from the edge. In addition, we found that the canopy structure is highly related to edge distance, independent of burn regime, with the lowest and least complex canopy near the edge. There was no difference in the average proportion of lianas per plot among the seedling areas, but in saplings, the area burned annually outperformed the others. In addition, the proportion of lianas per plot generally increased away from the seedling border and the tree fell. Seedling liana abundance was also higher in the unburned control, while in trees, treatments and distance to the edge had no effect on abundance. These responses point to complex patterns of degradation with various disorders interacting and acting at the same time. We conclude that the time since the last burn was not sufficient to recover the burned forests and that the distance to the edge creates a compositional gradient that allows some species to advance into the forest during the post-disturbance recovery period.

12
  • ANA LYZ MACHADO PARREIRA LÚCIO
  • Redefining the vegetation of Amazonia/Cerrado transition

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 19/12/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Redefininh the vegetation of Amazonia/Cerrado transition

Teses
1
  • Ana Clara Abadia Rodrigues de Sousa
  • Diversity patterns and drivers of woody savanna communities on different substrates

  • Orientador : EDDIE LENZA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Data: 17/04/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • In the Cerrado biome, a composition and structure of woody vegetation can be influenced by different factors that act in different spaces, especially between physiognomies with markedly different soils, such as the Typical Cerrado (CT) used on flat, deep and well-drained soils. , while the Cerrado Rupestre (CR) can establish in accidental relief, shallow soils and with rocky herring. In this study, we investigated how woody plants from two savanna environments, distinguishable by the type of substrate on the causes (CT and CR), which respond to regional (scalable and topographic) and local (edaphic properties) gradients, and determined the limits ecological changes and points of change at the community and population level. In addition, it is also available as changes in the composition and beta diversity of species, as well as changes in edaphic properties, considering two distinct environments (Cerrado Rupestre and Cerrado Típico). Our results revealed that the TC and CR environments have different ecological limits and points of change in the food and population level, considering the woody plants, both on a regional and local scale. We also show that there is a clear dissimilarity of the woody flora between CT and CR savannas, although the chemical and granulometric properties of the soil surface layers are not different between these environments. We also found that a beta diversity of the woody flora between the environments of both environments is exclusive for the replacement of species, with the most marginalized and central of the Biome being the ones that most contributed to a beta diversity. These results demonstrate that the editorial and topographic variability in the environments seems to have been more effective in explaining how changes in the responses of the communities that predict them are scalable. Our findings also revealed that, for the first time, the beta diversity standards for a woody flora in these environments are high due to the high substitution of species among communities. We believe that the high beta diversity is a reflection of the high floral variation of the woody plants, which exhibits unique flora among the sampled locations, due to their geographic and topographic characteristics, and not only due to the edaphic characteristics.

2
3
  • WESLEY JONATAR ALVES DA CRUZ
  • Functional structure in communities and ecological strategies of trees in Amazonia-Cerrado transition

  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 20/07/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The classification of plant species according to their function is an effective alternative to address ecological questions and responses of vegetation in relation to the physical environment. Understanding the importance of the variability of species strategies and functions requires the quantification of plant traits on a large scale. In this study we investigated the regenerative functional structure, trade-offs, ecological strategies and the intraspecific trait variability in a wide vegetation gradient between the Amazon and the Cerrado. We used a database composed of more than 80,000 records of functional attributes of almost 200 tree species in 39 permanent plots established in typical cerrado, cerradão, gallery forest, semideciduous seasonal forest, evergreen forest and open rain forest to answer the following questions: 1) What are the regenerative strategies and their influence on the structure of these different types of vegetation? 2) How does the functional structure change and what are the main trade-offs and strategies of the main tree species in the Amazon-Cerrado transition? 3) Is the intraspecific trait variability an indicator of better performance in forest and savanna species in multiscale? Our results showed that the species regenerative strategies are based on dry fruits dispersed by the wind or fleshy fruits dispersed by animals, being the most important zoocoria in all types of vegetation. We discovered the existence of remarkable strategies for resource use and survival in different types of vegetation. Strategies that change following the gradient from savanna and typical vegetation in the Cerrado to forest and typical in the Amazon. We record evidence that the intraspecific trait variability guarantees population growth and productivity on a regional scale. We conclude that the traits of fruits and seeds provide mechanisms for the tree species to reestablish themselves and the diversity of these characteristics can favor communities in each type of vegetation, which will allow them to withstand extreme environmental conditions. The morphological traits of leaves, bark and branches allowed us to identify ecological strategies and to classify the types of vegetation along the Amazon-Cerrado transition. We also found that not only the value of traits, but the magnitude of intraspecific variability influences the establishment and gain of aerial biomass, consequently causing an effect on local and regional demographic patterns. Our results provided indicators for predicting the response of the evaluated communities to possible environmental impacts, especially climate change, enabling better management and conservation of tree species.

4
  • MAYRA LAYRA DOS SANTOS ALMEIDA
  • Conservation of natural areas: A potential strategy to increase the ecosystem service of pollination in soybean and sunflower crops

  • Orientador : MONICA JOSENE BARBOSA PEREIRA
  • Data: 02/09/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Human activities resulting from the intensification of agricultural in the state of Mato Grosso, have caused habitat loss, resulting in fragmented landscapes, formed by remnants of native vegetation, kept as a Legal Reserve (LR), surrounded by extensive monoculture. This change can drastically affect the pollination service provided by bees in native and cultivated areas. To understand the contribution of LR to the preservation of pollinators and consequently to the yield of soybean and sunflower crops this research was structured in three chapters with the following objectives: (1) to evaluate the role of the Cerrado as a natural support habitat for bees that provide sunflower pollination services and the contribution of pollinators to the yield of this crop; (2) to verify the influence of habitat amount and proximity to natural habitats on composition, richness and abundance of bees in adjacent sunflower crop and; (3) to evaluate the contribution of bees from Cerrado to the soybean crop yield. In the first chapter we show that the bees present in the Cerrado visit the sunflower plantation, and increase the crop yield. In chapter II, when evaluating different agricultural landscapes (natural habitat x sunflower), we showed that species richness and abundance of bees showed a positive relationship with the amount of habitat , decreasing with the increase of the distance from the crop to the natural habitat edge. In addition, we also showed that the weight of sunflower seeds varied with the distance from the natural habitat. In chapter III, when evaluating the service provided by bees from Cerrado in the pollination and soybean crop yield, we found that the plants exposed to pollinators showed a 20% increase in the production of pods and seeds. We emphasize that in this study the number of bee species was high, both in natural areas and crops, indicating the importance of preserving areas of Legal Reserve to guarantee both pollinator biodiversity and the pollination services.

5
  • GABRIEL DOS SANTOS CARVALHO
  • Natural and applied biological control: influence of native vegetation fragments and releases from Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley, 1879) in lepidoptera-pest parasitism in soybean crop

  • Orientador : MONICA JOSENE BARBOSA PEREIRA
  • Data: 04/09/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The agricultural expansion of soy favors the appearance of pests and the reduction of areas of natural vegetation, compromising the ecosystem services provided by beneficial insects. The control of these pests occurs through insecticides, which impact human health and the environment, in addition to harming their natural enemies. In this sense, the present thesis evaluated the influence of native habitats and flooding releases of Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley) on the parasitism of soybean pest lepidopterans. Therefore, in chapter I we evaluated, in an area, whether the distance of cultivation in relation to the Cerrado fragment interferes in the richness, abundance and rate of parasitism of lepidopteran pests by Ichneumonoidea. We observed that the distance of cultivation in relation to the edge did not affect the diversity of Ichneumonoidea, abundance and rate of parasitism, but it did influence the abundance of caterpillars, with the lowest average closest to the fragment. The diversity of Ichneumonoidea was greater in the off-season and in the vegetative. The most abundant subfamilies were Ichneumoninae, Microgastrinae, Macrocentrinae and Cremastrinae. In the second chapter, we verify whether the parasitism rate and abundance of soybean pest lepidopterans were affected by the distance and amount of natural habitat, amount of pasture and total cultivated area, in different cultivation areas. We verified that the distance affected the parasitism of the caterpillars, increasing as it approaches the natural habitat; the amount of this does not interfere with the rate of parasitism, but has significant interaction with distance. The abundance of caterpillars was not affected by distance, but was benefited by the other metrics (amount of natural habitat, amount of pasture and cultivated area). In the third chapter, we evaluated the effect of different proportions of T. pretiosum (100,000; 200,000; 300,000 wasps / ha, control 1 = without release and without application; control 2 = without release and with application). All treatments with parasitoid release kept the caterpillar population below the control level, therefore, we recommend the use of 100,000 wasps / ha as it represents a lower production cost. These results are expected to contribute to subsidize the ecological management of caterpillars in soybean crops and thus reduce the risks to biodiversity.

6
  • NORBERTO GOMES RIBEIRO JUNIOR
  • Anatomy of tree species in southern Amazonia as a prediction of impacts of environmental changes

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 08/09/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Many predicted climate changes have been materializing since the early 2000s. In addition to the increase in the average temperature of the planet, tropical regions, including the Amazon Rainforest, have undergone intense drought cycles with years of less precipitation and more pronounced temperature peaks. Concomitant to these climate changes, deforestation is advancing along the edges and the major highways in the Amazon, increasing the loss of biodiversity and the effects of environmental changes. The Amazon-Cerrado (TAC) transition to the south and southeast of the Amazon is a vast area particularly sensitive to climatic factors due to the high seasonality of rainfall. In this zone, the rapid substitution of native vegetation for pastures and agriculture has destroyed ecosystems with particular characteristics and important collaboration for the environmental balance by their ecosystem services. Throughout this thesis, we have highlighted the structural particularities of TAC tree vegetation and meridional Amazon, both in case studies when evaluating anatomical-functional attributes (AFA) of species with high occurrence in the vegetation, and with comparisons of communities from different locations and patterns of AFA that allow a greater or lesser degree of resistance to the stress generated by climatic seasonality. In this perspective, we evaluated 16 plant communities using samples of leaves and stems from 932 trees. We process these samples and measure morphological, anatomical and physiological characters that we relate to the environmental characteristics of each plant community. We found that the species are endowed with different strategies to resist the seasonality of the region. While Tachigalli vulgaris is endowed with low plasticity to climatic conditions and water availability, having an apparent physiological and non-structural regulation to stress, other species of greater frequency in the sampled communities (Amaioua guianensis, Chaetocarpus echinocarpus, Miconia pyrifolia, Ocotea guianensis, Sacoglottis guianensis, Trattinnickia glaziovii and Xylopia amazonica) are notably endowed with phenotypic plasticity, being attuned to the plasticity of the wood tissue anatomy. When considering tree communities, most of them present a great diversity of strategies to deal with seasonal water stress. The comparative Cerradão vs. gallery forest revealed that despite a higher proportion of investment in xeromorphic structures, the cerradão is not endowed with excessively xeric characters and the gallery forest is endowed with greater hydraulic efficiency with minimal investment (at least in the vast majority of species) in safety hydraulic against vessel embolism. As for the comparison of the upland forest communities, we verified an interaction between xeromorphism and variations in water availability generated by seasonality. Drier communities presented for the leaves greater thickness of adaxial epidermis, smaller stomata and greater thickness of the leaf wing; and for branches the hydraulic conductivity, the average lumen area, the density of the xylemic vessels, the length and thickness of the sclerenchymatic fiber wall also varied according to our predictions, with patterns that generate greater xeromorphism and consequent hydraulic safety in the communities more seasonal. The particular responses of species to environmental variations make it difficult to analyze communities, however we were able to better understand how different taxa react to environmental stressors and how communities shape themselves to withstand the tropical seasonality that has presented intense episodes with greater frequency. It is a fact that some species have leaf adaptations such as: increase in supraepidermal structures, epidermal thickening and parenchyma that allow greater regulation of water loss. But the increase in hydraulic safety due to less efficient and safer conducting vessels is almost unanimous. Although there is investment in xeromorphic attributes, we emphasize that these communities are at risk of major changes in their structure and composition due to the intensification of stressful climatic events.

7
  • ANTONIO CARLOS SILVEIRO DA SILVA
  • THE ROLE OF FIRE AND DROUGHT EVENTS ON THE SOIL MOISTURE DYNAMICS IN THE TRANSITIONAL FOREST BETWEEN AMAZONIA AND CERRADO

  • Data: 23/11/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Soil moisture can both affect and be affected by possible trajectories of forests impacted by disturbances. In the Amazon – Cerrado transition forests, forest fires and extreme drought events have occurred with greater intensity and frequency. With that, we evaluated the post-fire impact on the water content in the soil (Volumetric Water Content - VWC) in a portion burned every three years (2004 to 2010) and another portion burned annually (2004 to 2010), in addition to the control plot. Our data collection covered the period from 2010 to 2018, which made it possible to assess the impacts of extreme drought from 2015-2016 on the water content in the soil in the three plots. To estimate the water content in the soil, we used and evaluated the quality of two methods: time domain reflectometer (TDR) and resistivity, both methods being calibrated using the gravimetric moisture content quantification technique (Gravimetric Water Content - GWC). We tested the hypotheses that (H1) the burnt plots present higher soil moisture in the first post-fire years (between 2011 and 2012) and a reduction in the following years, and (H2) the extreme drought event (between 2015 and 2016) caused a greater water deficit in the soil of the burnt plots. Our results showed that both methods used estimated soil moisture consistently. On the interannual scale, the post-fire soil moisture did not differ much from that recorded in the intact plot (H1). On the other hand, the reduction caused by drought in soil moisture was more intense in the burnt plots (H2), requiring more time to recharge the volume of water from the soil. In addition, forests, both burned and intact, increased water use in the dry season, suggesting that the stressful conditions of seasonal drought are imposing on woody trees a greater demand for soil water, which is accessed mainly from deep soil ( up to 8m). In this sense, the increase in forest fragmentation, widespread fires and extreme drought events may cause greater variability, and even abrupt reductions in soil moisture under transition forests in a short period of time, further increasing the uncertainties for the recovery of these degraded forests.

2019
Dissertações
1
  • LAURA REZENDE SOUZA
  • Composição e diversidade de espécies lenhosas em fisionomias florestais na trazição cerrado-floresta atlântica

  • Data: 15/07/2019


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Devido a sua ampla distribuição, o bioma Cerrado se estende por diversos estados na região central do Brasil, associando a outros biomas através de suas areas marginais de ocorrencia, como a Amazônia e Floresta Atlantica.

2
  • ROBSON SANTANA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Intensification of fire regimes and forest loss in the território Indígena do Xingu. 

  • Data: 26/07/2019


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Deforestation associated with degradation factors, as forest fires and extreme droughts, has led to substantial losses in forest cover and carbon stocks in the Amazon. Reduction and degradation in forest areas have been observed even within areas protected by law, such as conservation units and indigenous lands. However, we are still not sure which factors explain the changes observed in forest environments of protected areas in the Amazon. In this study we quantify, for the last 20 years, the forest loss due to degradation processes in the Xingu Indigenous Territory (TIX). This thesis is consisted of two parts, a general introduction: the general introduction, provides a detailed description about the area had studied and a literature review about the processes that contribute to forest degradation and a research chapter. We present an integrated analysis of the forest degradation processes operating on the forests of the TIX. For this, we determined six possible vectors of change in forest integrity and used a generalized linear model (GLM), with binomial distribution, to access the variables that best explain the observed changes in forest cover. The agents of change, that is, the response variables were as follows: type of forest (upland and floodplain); number of times the area burned; population density; distance from villages; distance from major rivers; and number of extreme drought events. We had shown that reducing forest cover in Xingu is mainly associated with a higher frequency of forest fires and the occurrence of extreme droughts, but the type of forest and the distance from the indigenous villages were also important. We conclude that forest fires and extreme drought events represents a serious threat to the integrity of forests on Xingu indigenous lands, especially for seasonally flooded forests that were most vulnerable to fire.

3
  • ARINOS OLIVEIRA SERPA
  • Thermal physiology and extinction risk induced by climate changes in Gymnodactylus amarali (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae)

  • Data: 12/10/2019


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The rapid pace of climate change poses a major threat to biodiversity conservation and unraveling how it will impact different species is a major obstacle to overcome. Because they depend on the ambient temperature for their thermoregulation, ectothermic animals are good models to understand these processes. Gymnodactylus amarali is an endemic lizard of the Cerrado, has nocturnal habits and preferentially inhabits rocky outcrops. In this study we investigate the thermal characteristics, calculate the restriction of the activity period, describe the thermal performance curve, create species distribution models based on environmental and ecophysiological data and, from them, evaluate the impact of different concentration scenarios of greenhouse gases and land use on the distribution of environmental suitability areas for the species. Our results show that the preferred and body temperatures are 26.03 ° C and 29.52 ° C, respectively. The species distribution model used for the suitability area calculations had an AUC of 95%. Today there has been a loss, due to deforestation, of 48% of areas that could be occupied by the species. In the RCP 4.5 scenario for the year 2050 these losses rise to 63% and reach 81% for the year 2070. In the RCP 8.5 scenario the losses are 79% for 2050 and 95% for 2070. When we consider different land use models, losses range from 55 to 99%. Our predictions indicate that reduced hours of activity, nocturnal habit, thermoforming ectothermy and micro-habitat specificity, together with marked reduction in suitability areas, determine a high risk of G. amarali extinction due to predicted environmental changes until the end of the century.

Teses
1
  • JHANY MARTINS DOS SANTOS
  • ...

  • Orientador : EDDIE LENZA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Data: 24/07/2019


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  • ...

2
  • JUAN CARLO SILVA ABAD
  • MULTI-SCALE APPROACHES ON ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN LEGAL AMAZON AT AMAZONIA/CERRADO TRANSITION REGION

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 27/12/2019


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  • The welfare and survival of the human being has always depended on natural resources. With the loss of natural ecosystems in the world due to changes in land use, the services provided by these environments are gaining more emphasis in the scientific environment. Several initiatives endeavor to study interactions between human populations and ecosystems, using tools and methodologies to analyze scenarios. However, they still have limitations regarding multi-scale approaches and definition of economic values to encourage the maintenance of areas intended for the provision of ecosystem services. Thus, our work has focused on the importance of Amazonia as a service provider for society, especially the Amazon-Cerrado transition area, due to its occupation history, which can bring us relevant insights and lessons on the reflexes of our policies of territorial occupation. We study the Amazon-Cerrado transition region at different scales and find that changes in land use have been affecting the supply of ecosystem services, especially affecting the poorest and most dependent on the local scale. Our results show that the model advocated by the territorial occupation policies is built on a large scale and has deficiencies for finer scales of analysis, where a great wealth of interactions between humans and nature are observed. We did not identify evidence that such a model promotes a better distribution of wealth and, therefore, poverty reduction in the region. On the contrary, we find locally that it generally promotes the concentration of wealth and the loss of ecosystem services that are important for maintaining the quality of life of the poor. In our scenario, extensive agriculture and livestock predominate, and the activities are responsible for such results, but payment for ecosystem services can be financially attractive for a change in rural income generation. We also noted in our study that Indigenous Lands play an important role in providing ecosystem services in the region, especially maintaining water for urban supplies and productive activities.

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