Dissertações/Teses

2024
Dissertações
1
  • EDIMÉIA LAURA SOUZA DA SILVA
  • “POTENCIAL DE ACLIMATAÇÃO FOTOSSINTÉTICA E DE RESPIRAÇÃO DE PLÂNTULAS DE ESPÉCIES FLORESTAIS DA BORDA SUL DA AMAZÔNIA"

  • Data: 07/03/2024


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • In recent years, the effects of climate change on Amazonian forests are intensifying and
    promoting an increase in temperature, water stress and the frequency and intensity of
    droughts. Therefore, the capacity for photosynthetic acclimatization and leaf respiration
    will be of great importance for plants in this region, as, through these processes, plants
    can maintain carbon absorption at high temperatures. Our objective was to evaluate the
    potential for thermal acclimatization in the processes of photosynthesis and leaf
    respiration in the dark of two important tree species widely distributed in the forests of
    the southern edge of the Amazon; Hymenaea courbaril and Protium altissimum. Our
    experiment was carried out in two air-conditioned greenhouses, the first operating at
    room temperature and the second operating at an increased maximum daily temperature
    of +1.5°C and +2.5°C. We measured the temperature response of net photosynthesis,

    dark-adapted leaf respiration for the two species in three measurement cycles (pre-
    treatment, +1.5°C and +2.5°C). Overall, our results show that photosynthetic and leaf

    respiration parameters in the dark do not present clear evidence of acclimation in
    relation to different temperatures, as the temperature response occurs in a similar way
    between greenhouses. However, we observed some variations in photosynthesis and
    leaf respiration responses between cycles for the two species, which tend to provide
    some evidence for a seasonal adjustment in the species' thermal sensitivity in relation to
    the region's natural temperature variation. Concluding that, despite not showing
    acclimatization to the increase in maximum daily temperatures, the species can present
    important strategies, such as seasonal adjustments, to deal with the region's temperature
    variation and reduce carbon loss during the warmer seasons. But it is still not clear
    whether the species would present the same strategies when faced with increased
    temperature and water deficit simultaneously, as normally happens during the dry
    season.

2
  • CARLA HELOISA LUZ DE OLIVEIRA
  • O aumento da temperatura do ar amplifica o efeito do estresse hídrico nas espécies arbóreas do sul da Amazônia

  • Data: 15/03/2024


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Increasing heat, vapour pressure deficit and decreasing water availability are major climate
    stressors facing tropical forests. High temperatures and long periods of drought expose plants
    to stressful conditions, possibly bringing them closer to their physiological thresholds, but little
    is known about their interactive effects on tropical plant functioning. Understanding these
    interactions is particularly critical in the Southern Amazon, where temperatures are increasing
    faster and there are stronger drying trends than other Amazon regions. Through greenhouse
    experiments in Southern Amazonia, we show that moderate increases in temperature (+3°C) in
    the absence of water stress have little impact on the physiological function of three
    representative Southern Amazonian plant species. On the other hand, when combined with
    drought stress, higher temperatures accelerated mortality and accentuated drought-induced
    reductions in stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic quantum yield (Φ). The
    acceleration of mortality induced by drought at high temperatures occurred in the three species
    evaluated, despite species-level variation in specific physiological responses to drought (e.g.
    some species exhibited faster declines in gs and Φ), We found no difference in these same
    parameters in the control house, or when we added heat to the heated house. Our results suggest
    that the high rates of temperature increase observed in the Southern Amazon, coupled with the
    lengthening of the dry season, is likely to elevate tree mortality and substantially impact forest
    dynamics in this region.

Teses
1
  • DAIELLE CARRIJO GOMES
  • DETERMINANTES AMBIENTAIS E ESPACIAIS DA COMPOSIÇÃO E DA DIVERSIDADE DE PLANTAS LENHOSAS DE FORMAÇÕES SAVÂNICAS DO CERRADO

  • Orientador : EDDIE LENZA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Data: 08/03/2024


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Understanding the contribution of deterministic and stochastic factors as structuring processes of large-scale plant communities depends on the compilation of metadata on environmental, spatial and biotic conditions. Here we use an extensive database with the aim of quantifying and separating the influence of deterministic (environment) and stochastic (space) processes on the composition of woody species in the largest and most biodiverse Neotropical savanna. We compiled data from 128 sites widely distributed in the Brazilian Cerrado and sampled using standardized methodology. These sites occur in different environmental conditions and represent mostly the savanna vegetation of the Cerrado: sites in deep soils and flat to gently undulating relief – Typical Cerrado (CT, n = 95) and sites in shallow soils, with rocky outcrops and rugged relief – Cerrado Rupestre (CR, n = 33). We employed PCoA to assess species composition dissimilarity between CR and CT; LCBD to determine which of the CR and CT sites contribute most to beta diversity; RDA to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions, spatial distribution and species composition; GDM to model the effects of soil, climate and space on species composition in the two environments. Climatic conditions were similar between CR and CT, but the texture, organic matter content and acidity of the soils differed between environments, with higher values in CR. The first two axes of the RDA explained, respectively, 40% and 23% of the variation in species composition, which was mainly associated with soil properties. Five CR sites and 10 CT sites, located mainly in the central portion of the biome, were those that most contributed to regional species diversity. Edaphic and climatic conditions explained beta diversity better than the spatial distribution of sites. Climatic and mainly soil conditions (deterministic processes) better explain beta diversity in woody communities in the Brazilian Cerrado than the influence of space (stochastic process). Thus, anthropogenic changes in Cerrado environments can alter the distribution of flora in this Biome.

2023
Dissertações
1
  • Sarah Silva Machado
  • Efeitos da fragmentação e perda de habitat na ecologia trófica de Glossophaga soricina (CHIROPTERA: PHYLLOSTOMIDAE) em paisagens fragmentadas da transição Cerrado-Amazônia

  • Orientador : JOAQUIM MANOEL DA SILVA
  • Data: 28/02/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • As intensas mudanças no uso da terra no bioma Cerrado, provocam a intensificação da perda e fragmentação do habitat, que impactam negativamente a estrutura trófica das comunidades. Glossophaga soricina é uma espécie de morcego neotropical adepta a nectarívoria, mas que tem a sua dieta fortemente influenciada pela disponibilidade de recursos, sendo a espécie um excelente modelo para se investigar os efeitos da perda e fragmentação do habitat na ecologia trófica. Usando análises de isótopos estáveis (δ15N e δ13C), investigamos se a perda e a fragmentação florestal provocam alterações na dieta e nicho isotópico de G.soricina em áreas fragmentadas da transição Cerrado-Amazônia. Nossa hipótese é de que, morcegos coletados em áreas com maior perda e fragmentação florestal apresentam valores mais positivos de δ15N e δ13C e maior largura de nicho isotópico, devido a inclusão de insetos em sua dieta. Nossos resultados indicam, que de forma geral a dieta da espécie é mais influenciada pela composição da paisagem, do que pela configuração do fragmento. Encontramos valores mais altos de δ15N e δ13C, em habitats com maior perda de vegetação remanescente e valores isotópicos menores em áreas mais conservadas. Verificamos que o nicho isotópico da espécie se expande em áreas mais alteradas, e é mais estreito em áreas com maior quantidade de vegetação nativa na paisagem. Nossos resultados demonstram, que G. soricina parece ser mais frugívoro/nectarívoro em habitats mais conservados, e mais insetívoro em habitats com maior perda e fragmentação florestal em áreas da transição Cerrado-Amazônia. Portanto, podemos inferir que as alterações antrópicas, podem estar modificando a ecologia trófica desses morcegos, podendo futuramente provocar prejuízos à prestação de serviços ecossistêmicos de polinização e dispersão de sementes, prestados por essa espécie.

2
  • João Victor Almeida Amorim Gomes
  • ESTIMATIVA E VALORAÇÃO DO ESTOQUE DE CARBONO DA VEGETAÇÃO SAVÂNICA NA TRANSIÇÃO CERRADO-AMAZÔNIA

  • Data: 08/03/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Although the transition between the Cerrado and Amazon biomes is described as the most extensive ecotonal region between savannah and forest in the world, little is known about the ecosystem services its natural ecosystems provide. Also, it still needs to be discovered how much intense anthropogenic activities and rapid changes in land use coverage have affected these services and transformed this scenario over the last three decades. The present study aims to evaluate the carbon stock of the aerial part of the typical savannah vegetation that occurs in the transition between the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, estimate its financial value, evaluate the change in land use and cover and its impact on the loss of services and identify areas with potential for implementing payment for ecosystem services. For this, we used data from Mapbiomas collection 6 to generate a manually categorized vegetation map and estimate how many hectares of typical savannah formations exist in the transition. From the extrapolation of the average carbon stored in a set of field plots composed of typical cerrado, we estimated the potential of the savannah formations of the transition to accumulate carbon. For the valuation of carbon, we adopted an average price in dollars practiced per ton of carbon equivalent (U$/tCO2eq), assigned by the global carbon market, based on the Brazilian Carbon Pricing platform. We also evaluated the feasibility of the proposed official carbon database for Brazilian vegetation in estimating the carbon stock of the transition savannah formations.

3
  • JOSE WEMERSON SOARES DA SILVA
  • AVALIAÇÃO DAS RELAÇÕES ENTRE CONDUTÂNCIA ESTOMÁTICA, POTENCIAL HÍDRICO FOLIAR E VPD EM ÁREAS DA BORDA SUL DA AMAZÔNIA

  • Data: 09/03/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Tropical forests represent a large portion of the vegetation cover and are characterized by
    their great provision of ecosystem services, including biodiversity, carbon capture and
    regulation of the hydrological cycle. Constant changes in precipitation, temperature and
    VPD rates constantly threaten the maintenance and permanence of these services. In recent
    decades, the southern edge of the Brazilian Amazon is a region that has experienced the
    greatest changes in climate and vertiginous reduction of forest area due to deforestation.
    The southern edge of the Amazon, then, represents a key region for studying regulatory
    characteristics that regulate the vulnerability of Amazonian trees to climate change. Due to
    the fundamental importance of stomata in controlling the water and carbon balance of
    plants, understanding how stomatal control strategies vary among southern Amazonian
    trees, as yet unknown, limits our ability to predict how these forests will respond to
    changes more intense in climate. In order to fill this gap, this work aimed to evaluate the
    relationship between stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and vapor pressure deficit
    (VPD) in three forest plots on the southern edge of the Brazilian Amazon. In all, 60
    individuals were measured, corresponding to the 10 most dominant species in each plot.
    After inducing the branches of the plants to conditions of maximum hydraulic
    conductivity, stomatal conductance, leaf water potential and DPV were measured
    simultaneously. Preliminarily, through a simple linear regression, it can be observed that
    for most of the species in the three sites, a decrease in the leaf water potential with
    progressive increases in the VPD. Stomatal conductance rates did not show a clear pattern
    for all species when exposed to progressive increases in VPD.


4
  • Lucas Pires de Oliveira
  • Padrões espaço-temporais de co-ocorrência da assembleia de peixes em um igarapé tropical, sudoeste da Amazônia

  • Orientador : FABIANO CORRÊA
  • Data: 27/03/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The structure of a community is influenced by deterministic and/or stochastic processes, generating organized or random patterns. We evaluated space-time patterns of cooccurrence of a fish assemblage in an Amazonian stream and the influence of abiotic factors (physical-chemical variables and hydrological period). We verified whether species with greater similarity in tolerance to physical-chemical variables tend to have greater cooccurrence and the influence of abiotic and landscape factors on assemblage composition. Structuring was assessed using the C-Score index and null models. We estimated the “physical-chemical niche” by OMI and correlated with C-score data. We performed simple and multiple regressions between organization patterns and physical-chemical variables;
    correlations between species and local environmental conditions and landscape; and partitioning of variation between predictor variables. The fish assemblage presented temporal, seasonal and space-time structure. On a local scale, most of the patterns were random. Species with different tolerances tend to have less co-occurrence in the dry period. Flood period and pH influence patterns of organization and anthropogenic impacts explain
    random patterns. Landscape and local environmental variables influenced species composition, but landscape had a greater explanation.


5
  • MILENE ALVES OLIVEIRA
  • Efeito da temperatura sobre a germinação de espécies comercializadas pela Associação Rede de Sementes do Xingu e utilizadas na recuperação de áreas degradadas

  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 31/03/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Estudos recentes apontam que, nos últimos anos, a temperatura do ar está aumentando vertiginosamente em todo Planeta e as perspectivas futuras são de aumentos ainda maiores. Apesar de existirem estudos demonstrando os efeitos do fogo na germinação de sementes, muito pouco sabemos sobre quais são os efeitos que as sementes de espécies florestais sofrem após ficarem expostas a altas temperaturas. Assim, nosso objetivo foi comparar a emergência de sementes, após a exposição à altas temperaturas, de sete espécies comercializadas pela Associação Rede de Sementes do Xingu, maior rede de comercialização de sementes florestais do Brasil. Avaliamos 18 tratamentos, com seis temperaturas (35, 40, 45, 50, 55 e 60ºC) e três períodos de exposição (1, 3 e 6 horas diárias) durante 30 dias consecutivos. As espécies com sementes mais resistentes foram Anacardium occidentale, Dipteryx alata, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Hymenaea courbaril, que germinaram mesmo depois de submetidas a 60°C por 6 horas, sendo recomendadas para recuperação de áreas degradadas. Entretanto, Jacaranda cuspidifolia, Mabea fistulifera e Myracrodruon urundeuva, foram mais sensíveis ao aumento de temperatura, apresentando drástica queda de germinação a partir de 55°C.

6
  • KAMILA PARREIRA DA SILVA
  • QUANTIFICAÇÃO E VALORAÇÃO DO ESTOQUE DE CARBONO EM TERRITÓRIO INDÍGENA NA TRANSIÇÃO AMAZÔNIA-CERRADO

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 03/04/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The degradation of tropical ecosystems caused by deforestation, selective logging and fire, results in a marked loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, contributing to the increase in atmospheric carbon and global climate change. To reduce this and other sources of CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, the industrialized countries signed the Kyoto Protocol, where measures to reduce emissions were established, including the commercialization of carbon credits. In Brazil, which holds the greatest global biodiversity, much of the carbon stocks are maintained in protected areas, especially in indigenous lands, both in the Amazon and in the Cerrado biomes. Studies on carbon stocks and trading in indigenous areas can contribute to the economy and sustainability of these communities by generating income and protecting their natural food resources. Given this scenario, we investigated areas of cerrado and forest in Aldeia Belém (Pimentel Barbosa Indigenous Reservation), in the Amazon/Cerrado Transition, with the following objectives: 1) estimating the amount of carbon above and below the ground; 2) compare the amount of carbon with other protected areas and 3) value the carbon stock in the Indigenous Land. To this end, we established 50 plots of 10*200 m in a cerrado (savanna facies) and 10 plots of 10*100 m in a gallery forest. We collected aboveground biomass data from wood vegetation, litter, herbaceous plants and soil to estimate the carbon value of the roots. For carbon estimates in both phytophysiognomies and in the different ecosystem components evaluated, we considered the percentage of carbon as 50% of the dry biomass. To verify if the carbon accumulated in the components varied between the areas, we performed Anova Two Way Permutation. To identify which ecosystem compartment the carbon varied from between areas, we used a Kruskal-Wallis followed by a post hoc Dannett test. The carbon valuation was based on a website specialized in carbon sales, the Future Carbon Credit. The total amount of carbon per area was higher in the gallery forest (88.59 Mg ha-1) than in the cerrado (47.21 Mg ha-1) (W = 9, p <0.01), making a total of 135.8 MgC/ ha, considering the soil carbon stock of the 0-20cm layers of the two areas. The area of 1,645.64 hectares of Aldeia Belém contains approximately 398.01 Mg ha-1 of CO2 removed from the atmosphere, revealing a substantial financial potential of R$176,860.39 per hectare based on the most recent average price. The stock of areas was 47% lower than that found in other carbon preserved areas and total income for conservation areas as an incentive for the protection of indigenous biodiversity, in addition to the generation of carbon in community preservation areas.

7
  • DALVANI BARROS DOS SANTOS
  • Representatividade das coleções nos estudos de descrição de espécies e de vocalizações de anuros sul-americanos: uma análise baseada no século XXI

  • Data: 27/04/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Biological collections represent sources of information about the species and places
    where they live.They are files of great importance to the research, bringing different types of
    information that produces history of the ecosystem sampled over time. When properly
    catalogued an acoustic recording acquires scientific value, with technical information and
    related biological. Acoustic signals are used by organisms such as anuran amphibians, being
    essential for communication between groups that carry information about the identity, size,
    location and sexual status of the issuer.The objective of this work was to describe the spatial
    and temporal representativeness of the biological collections that house the The biological
    collections that house the specimens and/or ecordsspecimens and/or records of audio recordings
    of anuran amphibian species that were described for the Neotropical region duringth records of
    audio recordings of anuran amphibian species that were described for the Neotropical region
    during the 21st century.This information is presented compiled on primary type specimens for
    1,007 anura amphibian species. Such information was compiled in the website database
    Amphibian Species of the World, that through the application of filters, the list of species
    described between 2000 a 2020 and overseas territory: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,
    Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and
    Venezuela The types were located with their respective acronyms. We obtained the results that
    most type species are deposited in the same country país (752 ssp.) Together we evaluate the
    respective descriptions and collections in which the advertising corners of these species were
    deposited.Our results show that the descriptions of Corners in relation to the types described
    are at a level of 50% compared to the descriptions of the Species.That is; we obtained 51%
    species to 48% Corners described and 1% of corners described twice. Regarding the
    representativeness of holotypes of South American species, we identified that nine countries
    outside South America they hold these holotypes, which are in developed countries such as
    Europe, Ecuador and Cuba. Whose songs have also been described outside the South America.
    In this work there are gaps of knowledge in relation to the descriptions of anuran calls from
    South America, since there are more species destined to traditional collections than species
    being destined for acoustic collections (fonotecas).Since there is not a great distance of time
    between the described species and their respective songs.


8
  • BETÂNIA ARCANJO DE OLIVEIRA
  • Efeitos dos fatores ambientais nas áreas de desovas e no sucesso reprodutivo das Tartarugas-Da-Amazônia
    Podocnemis expansa (Schweigger, 1812) e Tracajá Podocnemis unifilis (Troschel, 1848) em áreas
    monitoradas no Leste de Mato Grosso
    )

  • Data: 31/05/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • During the reproductive period, mother turtles seek out locations that provide physical
    factors that allow for safe shelter and the warmth necessary to ensure an adequate
    incubation process until their hatchlings hatch. The characteristics of egg deposition sites
    can intervene in the maturation of the embryo and in its ontogenetic and behavioral
    development. These sites, may be subject to anthropic actions, for example, the risk of
    forest fires that can affect the reproduction of turtles. Given this context, this study aims to:
    1. To evaluate the impact of fire on turtle nesting. Our hypothesis is that spawning areas
    more exposed to fire will tend to have lower reproductive success of
    P. expansa and P.
    unifilis
    turtles. 2. Evaluate the effect of mean temperature on nest reproductive success
    through incubation period and egg emergence, testing the hypothesis that sites where there
    is a higher mean temperature over the nest have greater reproductive success. The data
    concerning the species were provided by the Rio das Mortes Turtles project, which is a
    responsibility of the ONG Aliança da Terra. The information on the fires on the spawning
    beaches from 2006 to 2020 was obtained from the INPE database, and the average
    incubation temperature was obtained from the meteorological stations through the
    Agritempo monitoring system. To evaluate the impact of fire on turtle spawning and the
    effect of average environmental temperature on the reproductive success of the species, we
    performed a Generalized Mixed Models analysis with Poisson distribution. The variables
    number of fire outbreaks, 5km scale, average temperature of the county along with
    intercept showed a significant effect on reproductive success. Thus, for
    P. expansa the
    number of fire outbreaks negatively influenced reproductive success, while the average
    temperature of the municipality positively influenced reproductive success for the number
    of live pups. Our results, for
    P. unifilis, showed that the number of fire spots on a scale of 1
    km negatively influenced the reproductive success of the tracajás, as well as the average
    temperature of the municipality, where the higher average temperature had a lower
    reproductive success.


9
  • Pedro Henrique Santos Ferreira
  • "A conectividade governa a metacomunidade de insetos aquáticos do Pantanal”

  • Data: 19/06/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The Pantanal has high spatio-temporal heterogeneity due to the seasonal flooding regime of its rivers. Aquatic communities in shallow lakes in the biome are influenced by local processes linked to environmental heterogeneity and spatial factors such as connectivity and the distance from other water bodies. Taking advantage of these natural ecosystems of interconnected shallow lakes, we analyzed if aquatic insects inhabiting Pantanal shallow lakes in association with macrophytes are explained by connectivity, productivity, habitat heterogeneity, area, and distance from the Cuiabá River. In order to understand the structure of the aquatic insect metacommunity, we conducted analysis of the abundance, diversity and species richness along the natural design of the net interconnected shallow lakes, considering the importance of dispersal distinctiveness and functional complementarity among species. We investigated the impact of connectivity in association with a set of lake descriptors to test the following hypotheses: i) in connected lakes, we expect higher abundance and richness of aquatic insects associated with higher algal primary productivity. On one hand, ii) the dominance of insects in more productive lakes may contradict these expectations of the richness-energy theory (hypothesis i), resulting in the absence of an effect of primary productivity on species richness, but still reflecting high abundance of some taxa independently of connectivity. On the other hand,  iii) we expect disconnected lakes to exhibit higher insect species richness, diversity, and evenness abundance distribution due to a greater number of species adapted to macrophyte-provided habitat heterogeneity. In addition, we test whether iv) the presence of limnological gradients such as eutrophication (e.g., chemical enrichment) affects alpha diversity of aquatic insects. Finally, in accordance with predictions from Island Biogeographic Theory, we expect that: v) species richness decreases with distance from the lake to the main channel of the Cuiabá River as a continuous source of individuals; and we tested whether vi) species richness increases with area size due to its positive effect on habitat heterogeneity. We observed that heterogeneity was higher in disconnected lakes, considering both limnological predictors and habitat diversity. Despite higher algal productivity in connected lakes, abundance, richness, diversity, and equity were similar between river-connected and disconnected lakes. Algal productivity had a negative effect on insect abundance. The interaction between connectivity with algal productivity negatively affected aquatic insect abundance, and its interaction with PC-I limnological gradients positively affected Shannon's equity. Our results indicate that connectivity plays a key role for habitat and limnological heterogeneity as well as primary productivity, but does not always affect the insects studied. Our results further suggest low support for our hypotheses of the influence of primary productivity, habitat heterogeneity, area and distance to the river. On the other hand, there is high support for the effect of productivity and limnological gradients on insect abundance. Additionally, limnological effects were also observed for Shannon richness, diversity and equity, while distance to the river positively affected Shannon diversity. We discuss these findings in relation to the impacts of eutrophication, habitat homogenization, and isolation on insect biology and the implications for biodiversity conservation of shallow Pantanal lakes.

10
  • MAELLY DALLET ALVES GONÇALVES
  • Importantes e tão esquecidas: diversidade e produtividade de herbáceas em fitofisionomias da transição Amazônia-Cerrado

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 26/06/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Herbaceous plants are usually neglected in ecological studies. They are essential during the process of ecological succession, as they are important to facilitate the entry of other species and other strata such as arboreal. Understanding the ecological characteristics of herbaceous plants is extremely necessary to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. In this context, we evaluated the richness, diversity, abundance and biomass of herbaceous species in a vegetation and light gradient from savannah to forest in the Amazon-Cerrado transition. We used 1m diameter circles, established in the four cardinal directions at 5m intervals along four transects in the phytophysiognomies of rocky cerrado, typical cerrado, dense cerrado, regenerating cerrado and preserved cerrado, in a Conservation Unit in Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We measured species richness, abundance of individuals and aerial biomass of herbaceous plants. We also measured the leaf area index (LAI) using hemispherical photographs. In total, we sampled 2,334 individuals, 132 species/morphospecies and 26 botanical families, with only four taxa shared between phytophysiognomies. The luminosity exerted influence on the savanna phytophysiognomies, resulting in a greater richness and abundance of herbaceous species in comparison to the forest phytophysiognomies. In addition, we observed a biomass gradient in the herbaceous stratum, with lower values (preserved savannah = 0.168 ± 0.32) and higher values of Leaf Area Index (preserved savannah = 3.46 ± 0.10 m²/m²) in forest phytophysiognomies, and, on the other hand, higher values (cerrado rupestre = 19.6 ± 21.8) and lower values of LAI in the savannah formations (cerrado rupestre = 0.90 ± 0.10 m²/m²). The reduction of light intensity affects the structure of the herbaceous plant community, establishing a more accentuated biomass gradient in the savannah formations, which makes these environments richer and more diversified. Our resarch is relevant to the ecological understanding of these ecosystems and can support management and conservation strategies for this often neglected, but important and essential, stratum in the plant communities of the transition region between the Amazon and the Cerrado.

11
  • MANASSES DA SILVA BORGES
  • Evolução molecular de espécies do gênero Eptesicus (Chiroptera:Vespertilionidae)

  • Data: 30/06/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Molecular data are currently important sources of information for reconstructing the evolutionary history of different organisms. Phylogenetic relationships reconstructed from genetic data can profoundly contribute to improving the inference of macroecological and biogeographical patterns, providing the necessary information for testing robust hypotheses using comparative biology methods. The main objective of this work was to investigate the rates of molecular evolution of the mitochondrial genome of the family Vespertilionidae, using the description of four unpublished mitochondrial genomes of species of the genus Eptesicus. Thus, we describe the complete mitochondrial genomes of four Eptesicus species: Eptesicus brasiliensis, Eptesicus diminutus, Eptesicus furinalis and Eptesicus nilssonii. Based on the size of the described mitogenomes, the bat Eptesicus brasiliensis resulted in a total length of 16,864 bp, Eptesicus diminutus with a length of 17,027 bp, Eptesicus furinalis with a length of 16,838 bp and Eptesicus nilssonii with a length of 17,009 bp. The mitochondrial genome of Eptesicus brasiliensis consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA genes, and a control region (CR). While the mitochondrial genome of Eptesicus diminutus consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region (CR). Eptesicus furinalis has a mitogenome with 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region (CR). The mitochondrial genome of Eptesicus nilssonii has 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes and a control region (CR). The results indicate that the estimated mean mutation rate in coding genes was 0.01 mutations per site per million years, while in ribosomal genes it was about 0.007 mutations per site per million years. It was observed that the ND5, ND6 and ND4 genes had a higher relative mutation rate, while the ND4, ND6, ND1, ND2 and ND4L genes had a higher molecular clock rates. These information are important resources to understand the evolution and diversification of bats of the Vespertilionidae family, and eill also contribute to future research in the area.

12
  • Marco Rodrigo de Souza
  • Ausência dos incêndios como fator estruturador de assembléia de mamíferos na Estação Ecológica Serra das Araras, no sudoeste de Mato Grosso-Brasil

     

  • Orientador : MANOEL DOS SANTOS FILHO
  • Data: 03/08/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The Cerrado domain is known to be the largest tropical savannah region in South America, making up, in turn, the second largest biome in Brazil that is affected by natural or anthropogenic events, such as fires. In this Biome, natural fires caused by lightning occur, being relatively frequent, occurring mainly in the dry-rain transition. Such repetitive processes can cause a reduction in available food for fauna, vegetation fragmentation, among other effects. In this case, it may generate impacts on the population of medium and large mammals. In this way, changes in the structure of the community of medium and large mammals at the UC Estação Ecológica Serra das Araras were evaluated after a period of 17 years without the interference of fire, from 1999 to 2016. Between October 2016 and June 2017, changes were four Cerrado phytophysiognomies were sampled: gallery forest, dry forest, babassu forest and cerrado stricto sensu (ss), using camera traps installed in tree trunks in places with traces of mammals. In this study, 28 species of medium and large mammals were recorded. Species richness did not present a statistically significant difference between the sampled habitats, however the species composition between the habitats was observed that the “cerrado serra”, located 800m of altitude was different from the other areas. When comparing the species composition between the current study and the year 1999/2000, it can be seen that the cerrado ss differs from the other areas, and that the current cerrado ss is closer to forest areas than in 1999/2000 due to the absence Of fire. Habitat transformation may be influencing the structure of the medium and large mammal community at ESEC Serra das Araras. Previously open areas are being invaded by tree vegetation and its associated fauna, thus becoming ideal habitats for forest-dependent species. Typical open cerrado mammals are losing habitats and often occupying areas outside the UC. Thus, large species such as some carnivores and frugivores are exposed to hunting.

13
  • Bianca Ferraz Rebelatto
  • Relação entre florestas e a agricultura: como a vegetação nativa da paisagem influencia a produtividade agrícola?

  • Data: 31/08/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The large-scale removal of native vegetation in the tropics directly impacts various ecosystem services produced by ecosystems, such as the production of regular rainfall and climate balance. Thus, the advance of deforestation and its effects on the climate can potentially reduce the areas favorable to agricultural cultivation in Brazil and, therefore, the final productivity of crops. The main objectives of this work were: a) to create a model of soybean agricultural productivity based on climatic and reflectance variables of cultivated fields for the region that includes MATOPIBA, Mato Grosso and Goiás; b) evaluate the relationship between native vegetation in the landscape and soybean productivity for the same region. To create the agricultural productivity model, we used mixed linear models (LMM) with soybean productivity data from 63 rural properties (2009/10 and 2016/17 harvests), considering as predictors multiple climate variables and the improved vegetation index (EVI). Then, to validate the predicted productivity map, we used IBGE municipal agricultural productivity data. To evaluate the contribution of native vegetation to soybean productivity, we used the predicted soybean productivity of 100 points randomized 20 times in the region as a function of the proportion of native vegetation in the landscape in a buffer of 50 km, where we verified the point maximum proportion of forest through a segmented regression. The best soybean productivity model included as predictors the Improved Vegetation Index (EVI), the Daytime Land Surface Temperature (DLST), the Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) and the Number of Dry Days (NDD). The productivity model presented a coefficient of determination of 50%, with greater importance of the EVI for drier and hotter years, and with a reduction in soybean yield with the increase of DLST, VPD and NDD. The proportion of vegetation was positively correlated with soybean yield in all years of the time series, with a determination coefficient of up to 50%. Segmented regression showed a maximum breakpoint of 26% of native vegetation, indicating a strong reduction in productivity in landscapes with smaller vegetation cover. The regression slope in the second segment was positive for most of the evaluated years, indicating that the increase in the amount of native vegetation in the landscape results in greater productivity. Our results indicate that the forest contributes to the productivity of the soybean crop due to the benefits of local ecosystem services. The results of this work will allow the elaboration of regional productivity maps and the promotion of sustainable environmental practices for food production that protect the multiple ecosystem services that the forest provides.

14
  • DANIEL FERREIRA DE OLIVEIRA
  • DESENVOLVIMENTO DE FLORESTAS RESTAURADAS POR SEMEADURA DIRETA AO LONGO DE NOVE ANOS NA TRANSIÇÃO AMAZÔNIA-CERRADO

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 14/12/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The concern with the conservation and recovery of vegetation cover in legal reserve areas and permanent preservation areas is a pressing need in the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Studies have been developed in search of understanding the models of environmental recovery that catalyze the natural processes of natural regeneration in ecosystems of degraded areas. A promising alternative for areas with low potential for natural regeneration is the muvuca de sementes, term in Portuguese designating direct sewing of a mixture of seeds of different species, a more economically viable technique for forest restoratuion. The muvuca consists of a mixture of seeds of native species with different life cycles and of several successional and functional groups together. Our study aimed to investigate changes in the structure and species composition of areas with different recovery ages through seed muvuca in the Amazon-Cerrado transition. Three areas restored by muvuca with different ages (4, 7 and 9 years) and a reference area in a native forest remnant were selected. The parameters investigated were species richness, density of individuals by size class, basal area, aboveground biomass, herbaceous cover and tree diameter distribution. Our data showed a very large floristic difference between the muvuca areas and the native forest, indicating that it will take a long time before colonization by propagules originating from nearby remaining forests can take place. We noticed a rapid successional dynamics with a tendency to structurally evolve over time, which may resemble the structure of the native forest under study. Fast-growing species, especially Mabea fistulifera, Tachigali vulgaris, Enterolobium contortisiliquum and Birsonima laxiflora, stood out for their high density of individuals and for contributing to the rapid formation of the adult stratum, while slower-growing species contributed to diversity, from the lower strata, especially Miracrodum urundeuva, Simarouba versicolor, Hymenaea courbaril, Astronium fraxinifolium and Andira vermifuga. We conclude that a previous phytosociological survey in the nearby remnants is essential to start the selection of seeds to be used in planting, since the species richness alone is not capable of guaranteeing its functional success. It is necessary to restore local rather than regional community. In addition, continuous monitoring in these areas is essential to verify whether these species will continue to arrive, as if this does not happen, new management measures may be necessary.

Teses
1
  • NAYANE CRISTINA CANDIDA DOS SANTOS PRESTES
  • Impacto do El Niño de 2015/2016 na dinâmica da composição florística e carbono na transição Amazônia-Cerrado

  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 07/02/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • As alterações no clima registradas nas últimas décadas podem estar influenciando na intensificação de seca na transição Amazônia-Cerrado, resultando em uma ameaça na dinâmica de diferentes vegetações. As espécies arbóreas estão entre as mais vulneráveis aos efeitos das mudanças climáticas, visto que a diversidade das comunidades está fortemente associada aos processos mecânicos e fisiológicos. Assim, entender como a seca afeta os padrões de dinâmica nesta região é essencial para antecipar e planejar ações para remediação de possíveis impactos. Aqui, investigamos as respostas de diferentes vegetações à seca 2015/16, utilizando dados de parcelas com monitoramento permanente de longo prazo. Nossos resultados revelaram que a seca de 2015/2016 ocasionou mudanças negativas na composição (recrutamento e mortalidade) e estrutura (área basal e biomassa) em diferentes vegetações da transição Amazônia-Cerrado. Além disso, observamos que os maiores impactos foram registrados em parcelas consideradas mais secas e quentes (marcante sazonalidade climática ao longo do ano) e, durante o El Niño de 2015/16 a estação seca se intensificou ainda mais. Especialmente para as florestas estacionais e cerradão encontramos as maiores perdas, em função ao aumento substancial na taxa de mortalidade. A mortalidade foi um dos principais fatores moduladores na mudança da dinâmica, resultando em perdas imediatas e consideráveis de biomassa, acompanhadas de redução da densidade de indivíduos. Nossos achados nos direcionam para uma rápida mudança nos padrões da dinâmica na transição Amazônia-Cerrado em resposta às variações climáticas. Por fim, nossa pesquisa pode preencher parcialmente a lacuna sobre comportamento das comunidades arbóreas em diferentes tipos florestais ao longo de um gradiente latitudinal, fornecendo informações inéditas, além de servir como proxi, visando futuras iniciativas relacionadas à conservação, manejo e restauração na região.

2
  • DAIANA CARDOSO SILVA
  • Processos reguladores da diversidade e endemismo dos morcegos neotropicais 

  • Data: 10/02/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Different processes influence and regulate the species composition and diversity of a community, including climate, evolutionary history, environmental heterogeneity and barriers to dispersal, as well as anthropogenic disturbances in natural habitats. In this thesis, I investigated several important processes in structuring species richness, functional diversity, phylogenetic diversity, taxonomic endemism and phylogenetic endemism of Neotropical bats. The thesis is divided into three chapters. In the first chapter, we investigated how ecological factors, geological history and climatic history influenced the current diversity patterns of bat communities in the Cerrado. We used distribution records of bat species from the Cerrado to calculate dimensions of biodiversity. We found that habitat heterogeneity was a major driver of the evolutionary lineage of Cerrado bats, and species with evolutionarily similar lineages share habitats with homogeneous vegetation. The species diversities indicate that the species that were filtered by the adaptive traits occupied mainly the regions of climatic instability of the Cerrado. Our main objective of the second chapter was to understand patterns of beta diversity and bat endemism in cis-Andean Amazonia and their relationships with the major river systems of Amazonia. Our results indicate that rivers are not major barriers to the current distribution of most bat species, and breaks in bat community composition were divided into two groups separating the eastern and western regions, and a third group in northern Amazonia.  Interestingly, the geographic patterns we found for compositional breakdowns of bat communities closely resemble those recovered using bird communities, suggesting that similar ecological and historical factors may be acting to determine the distribution of flying vertebrates in the Amazon. Finally, our third chapter has as main objective to investigate the ecological processes that determine the assemblage of communities in the Cerrado-Atlantic Forest ecotone region in comparison with the central regions of the biomes, using mathematical models based on evolutionary history and functional characteristics of the species. The results indicated that the environmental filter model is the main structure of bat communities in the Cerrado-Atlantic Forest ecotone region.

3
  • EDUARDO QUEIRÓZ MARQUES
  • DEGRADAÇÃO FLORESTAL: COMO O ESTRESSE HÍDRICO, QUEIMADAS E FATORES CLIMÁTICOS AFETAM AS FLORESTAS NA BORDA SUL DA AMAZÔNIA?

  • Data: 15/05/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Forest degradation can occur through several factors such as prolonged droughts, fires, wind storms, among others. Although these processes occur on a large scale in tropical forests and are in full intensification due to climate change, the use of surface reflectance for mapping forest degradation is still quite challenging. In this study we used multispectral data from the Landsat satellite and hyperspectral data from the EO-1 satellite to quantify forest degradation caused by fires in an area of experimental fires (2004 to 2010) on the southern of Amazonia. We used 18 Vegetation Indices (VI) being one specific for Landsat and 12 specific for EO-1, calculated for the burnt and control treatments. The most sensitive VIs of Landsat to changes in vegetation were the GRND and NDII, reaching values 87% and 48% lower than the unburned vegetation, respectively. From EO-1, PSRI was the most sensitive (94% higher than the control). Both the Landsat and EO-1 VIs detected the highest values at the end of the experiment (2010) and for the edge of the vegetation, which was evidenced by the drier and flammable vegetation detected by the increase in the PSRI and MSI VIs and the drop in NDVI and NDII. The use of hyperspectral VIs allowed the visualization of different processes occurring in the burned vegetation, such as the increase of anthocyanins and carotenoids and the decrease of photosynthesis and vegetation water. Our results show that hyperspectral VIs associatedwith carotenoid/chlorophyll changes are the key to detecting vegetation stress and degradation associated with forest fires in early years through satellite imagery.

4
  • CLEIDE CARNICÉR
  • Lacunas de conhecimento e fatores determinantes da distribuição de ovos e larvas de peixes de água doce

  • Data: 26/05/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The synthesis of scientific knowledge provides an important guide to identify gaps and trends of studies. Here, we conducted a scientometric review of the freshwater ichthyoplankton literature to investigate: (i) temporal trend in publications; (ii) the scopes and habitats; (iii) the spatial distribution; (iv) the studied species and their respective conservation status and (v) the drivers of the spatial distribution pattern of studies. We found 652 studies published between 1959 and 2020. Most studies sought to understand the determinants of the basic biology of ichthyoplankton and were carried out mainly in rivers and lakes. Regarding the spatial distribution, we found studies in only 22,3% of the known freshwater ecoregions. Only 870 species have information about ichthyoplankton, it is only 4.80% of the known freshwater fish species. The ichthyoplankton species found in the studies are assessed by the IUCN in six threat status, and for many species (303) there are no assessments. The area of the ecoregions, the density of highways, the volume of rivers and the number of hydroelectric plants were the determining factors for the spatial distribution of the studies. Thus, the biases found in relation to the types of habitats, the spatial distribution and the few fish species studied in the ichthyoplankton phases demonstrate the need for further studies seeking to resolve these gaps. Finally, we emphasize that the lack biological basic information is a serious problem to implement actions that safeguard fish biodiversity in freshwater ecosystems.

5
  • JOÃO CARLOS PIRES DE OLIVEIRA
  • Úteis, mas podem melhorar: avanços metodológicos para a Modelagem de Nicho e Distribuição de Espécies

  • Orientador : PEDRO VASCONCELLOS EISENLOHR
  • Data: 04/08/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Ecological Niche Modeling and Species Distribution Modeling (ENM and SDM) are widely used in various areas of knowledge that aim to understand niche and species distribution features. The methodological and conceptual development to model the niche and species distribution occurred quickly throughout their brief history, which began in the 90s, aiming to incorporate more ecological significance and precision to the prediction maps of the models. Therefore, searching for more accurate algorithms became inevitable, as well as for more accurate evaluations. However, the modelers are not unanimous in recommending the methodological and theoretical framework, and this generates inaccuracies in the construction and interpretation of models. In this sense, we still need to move forward conceptually and methodologically, and we propose to achieve this goal of making the ENM and SDM more reliable. For this we seek to answer the following question: Can we build and interpret more robust ENM and SDM, with valid ecological interpretations in their multiple applications? We believe that we indeed can, and we propose new methodologies to: 1) Evaluate and propose alternatives to provide a most accurate model evaluation; and 2) Identify the effect of the collection bias on the predictive performance of the models and propose solutions. 


6
  • IGOR ARAÚJO DE SOUZA
  • Sul da Amazônia no limite: Relações entre atributos hidráulicos, estrutura e crescimento das árvores

  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 26/10/2023


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Increasing drought frequency poses a risk to the future function o tropical trees. Previous studies have found that large tropical trees face greatest mortality risk under drought, but the mechanisms behind this are unclear. Here we investigate whether large tropical trees have different hydraulic traits to smaller conspecifics. We computed xylem hydraulic conductivity from anatomical measurements, and determined xylem resistance to embolism, hydraulic safety margin and wood functional traits for four tree species in southern Amazon in Brazil, across a range of tree heights from saplings to adult trees close to their maximum heights. We found that taller trees within the species exhibit greater hydraulic efficiency and are more vulnerable to embolism and, therefore, more susceptible to drought than lower conspecifics. We also found that wood density and vessel diameter are good predictors of xylem hydraulic vulnerability. Overall, the results suggest that increasing hydraulic vulnerability with height may help to explain patterns of high drought-induced mortality in large trees.

2022
Dissertações
1
  • LUCILENE PEREIRA DA SILVA SANTOS
  • Dinâmica da vegetação lenhosa de uma floresta de terra preta de índio e uma floresta de terra não preta adjacente no sul da Amazônia

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 29/03/2022


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • A Floresta Amazônica apresenta diferentes fitofisionomias florestais, que em sua maioria apresentam solos naturalmente distróficos. Dentre as fitofisionomias, ocorre as florestas de Terra Preta de Índio (TPI), que são manchas de solo altamente férteis espalhadas por toda a Bacia Amazônica. As TPIs chamam a atenção pelo fato de terem sido produzidas, em grande parte, por ação de povos indígenas do período pré-colombiano. Devido à elevada fertilidade desse solo, a vegetação difere da vegetação adjacente, tanto na composição florística quanto na estrutura. Entretanto, estudos que visem a dinâmica dessa vegetação são escassos ou inexistentes, especialmente os que comparam em relação à vegetação adjacente. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é comparar a dinâmica da comunidade lenhosa de uma TPI e uma TNP (Floresta de Terra não-Preta) no Sul da Amazônia, no período de três e quatro anos, respectivamente (2017-2020 e 2016-2020). Em TPI e TNP foram estabelecidas parcelas permanentes de 1 ha (100x100m), onde foram amostrados todos os indivíduos com diâmetro à altura do peito (DAP1,30 m) ≥ 10 cm. No segundo levantamento todos os indivíduos foram remedidos e incluídos os recrutas. A floresta de TPI apresentou equilíbrio dinâmico entre mortalidade, recrutamento, perda e ganho em área basal, enquanto TNP apresentou maior dinamismo. Ao mesmo tempo que composição de espécies e a riqueza de espécies difeiru entre as florestas, no entanto TPI apresentou maior área basal (biomassa). Assim, nossos resultados sugerem que as diferenças encontradas entre as florestas, estão relacionadas a melhor fertilidade dos solos de TPI, e que essa floresta está servindo como um freio para o hiperdinamismo na borda Sul da Amazônia.

2
  • Janecleia Soares de Aragão
  • Semeadura direta recupera os atributos estruturais da vegetação,  formando florestas na transição cerrado-Amazônia

  • Data: 28/07/2022


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The forests of the south of the Amazon were highly deforested, including the riparian forests legally protected, requiring reforestation actions. Direct seeding has been expanding as an active method of low cost and easy to implement on a large scale. Through the Xingu basin restoration program, more than 5,000ha have already been restored by direct seeding. In this study we evaluated and compared the structure, diversity and floristic composition of arboreal vegetation from forests restored by direct seeding and primary forests on the southern edge of Amazonia. We measured height, diameter and identified all woody individuals with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm in 23 plots 10 x 50 m established in restored forest areas and 10 in primary forests. In addition, we classified the species occurring in the restored plots as seeded and naturally regenerated. We recorded 1,661 individuals belonging to 71 species distributed in 60 genera of 29 families. The restored forests showed no similarity and exhibited lower species richness, biomass and basal area when compared to adjacent primary forests, showing that the recovery time of ~10 years was not enough to recompose the parameters. Direct sowing, most of the time, resulted in high dominance of a single species and low diversity, even so the richness and diversity between sown and regenerated species did not show a statistically significant difference, showing that regeneration has been gradually established in these new ecosystems. In summary, our findings suggest that direct seeding is a good alternative for forest restoration in areas with little or no potential for passive regeneration in the Cerrado-Amazon transition.

3
  • MARIA NEYRA GONSALVES DE BRITO
  • Efeitos do clima, da umidade do solo e do fogo sobre a fenologia de espécies lenhosas do Cerrado

  • Orientador : EDDIE LENZA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Data: 21/10/2022


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The Cerrado vegetation is historically adapted to seasonal water scarcity and natural occurrence of fires, but we still know little about the effects imposed by these environmental conditions in the current scenario of climate change. We evaluated the effect of climate, fire, and soil moisture on the phenology of woody species from two adjacent sites of savanna formation of the Cerrado biome (Cerrado stricto sensu). The first site has been protected from fire for more than 20 years (since September 2001), here called unburned site, while the second site was accidentally burned in September 2001 and 2008 and August 2016, here considered as burned site. At both sites, we estimated the intensity of leaf cover in the canopy, flowering and fruiting of the same plants during two distinct periods (period 1 - May 2008 to October 2011; period 2 - April 2020 and April 2022). We obtained measurements of precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and Vapor Pressure Deficit. Only at the unburned site we measured relative soil moisture, at three depths (0-20 cm; 40-60 and 90-110) between the months of April 2020 and April 2022. Considering the degree of leaf deciduousness, inferred from leaf coverage in the canopy, we categorized the species into four phenological groups: evergreen with continuous growth, evergreen with seasonal growth, brevideciduous, and deciduous. By comparing the burned and unburned site we show that: 1. the climate was markedly seasonal, with higher rainfall volumes between 2009 and 2015 and lower between 2016 and 2021; 2. after the 2008 fire, some species did not flower until one or two years on the burned site, others flowered but did not fruit and some species did not mature fruits; 3. Nine of the 12 species studied showed a difference in the average flowering time of the plants, of which eight species delayed and only one anticipated flowering in the second (less rainy) period compared to the first (more rainy) period. In evaluating the effect of climate and soil moisture on the phenological behavior of the species at the unburned site over a 2-year period we showed: 1. In the three soil layers analyzed, the proportion of water in the soils in the year 2021 (dry year) was lower than that recorded in 2020 (wet year); 2. Leaf deciduousness was greater in the drier year than in the wet year; 3. Most species delayed flowering time in the second (drier) sample period compared to the first (wetter) sample period; 4. Leaf coverage in the canopy was greater in months with higher relative humidity and higher water availability in soils; 5. Leaf senescence occurred in months with lower precipitation, soil water, and minimum temperature; 6. Leaf production was concentrated in months with higher precipitation, minimum temperature, and soil water; 7. Anemochoric fruit maturation occurred in months with lower relative humidity. Our long-term and short-term studies suggest that vegetative and reproductive phenological behaviors are affected by water availability to plants and by fire. We concluded that the effect of fire on phenology depended on the degree of deciduousness of the plants, while we did not unequivocally show that the effect of water availability differed on species with distinct phenological behaviors.

     

Teses
1
  • HELLEN KEZIA SILVA ALMADA
  • Implicações do desmatamento na transição Cerrado-Amazônia para a regulação do clima e disponibilidade hídrica

     
  • Orientador : EDDIE LENZA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Data: 31/05/2022


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • One of the great challenges of ecosystem ecology today is to understand how climate change and changes in land use and cover affect or have the potential to affect the services provided by native ecosystems, such as climate regulation and water availability, and to understand what are the effects of these changes on the environmental and economic sustainability of urban and rural communities. In this context, Brazilian Conservation Units (CUs) and Indigenous Lands (ILs) have been particularly effective as barriers to deforestation and in providing ecosystem services, including climate regulation. However, deforestation in private areas outside UCs and TIs, known as multiple-use zones (MUs), often adds external pressure that increases disturbance within protected areas. Here, we use recent satellite-based data (2001-2020) to assess how surface temperature [LST], evapotranspiration [ET] and albedo – three key processes for climate regulation – have changed with land use (CUs, ILs, and MUs) and biomes (Amazon, Cerrado) in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso. We also evaluated the temporal effects of changes in land use and cover on water flow and availability, in microbasins with steep relief and different levels of native vegetation cover, located in the transition between the Cerrado and Amazon biomes. Our results confirm that, despite multiple stressors, protected areas still play an important role in stabilizing the regional climate, maintaining a higher ET flux, lower LST and lower albedo relative to other land uses. We also showed in this study that the annual and daily flows in steep watersheds depend directly on the percentage of native vegetation, since these flows are always higher in watersheds with higher conversion rates of native vegetation. We found even greater seasonality in the flow of watersheds with the highest percentage of converted area, where storm peaks were always higher and the base flow in the dry season was lower. Our study indicated that deforestation in steep watersheds can compromise water availability in the region, since the replacement of native vegetation promotes peaks in water flow during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season.

2
  • SEIXAS REZENDE OLIVEIRA
  • Anurofauna do cerrado: Uma abordagem em diferentes escalas espaciais

  • Data: 23/09/2022


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The Cerrado Biome is considered to have a high concentration of endemic species, however it has already lost much of its native vegetation cover. The degradation of the area due to the great advance of agriculture continues to be the main cause of habitat fragmentation, which causes numerous problems for the fauna. Among the animals that suffer from deforestation and habitat fragmentation are amphibians, which have a high degree of vulnerability because they are ectothermic and have poor conditions for adapting to variations in the environment. For these reasons, amphibians are the most threatened vertebrates on the planet, as population declines have been recorded for several species around the world. In Brazil, there are 1188 species of amphibians, the vast majority of which are anurans (1142 species). Despite the great biodiversity of animals in the Cerrado, knowledge about the anurofauna is still considered incipient, with 210 species of amphibians being recorded in the literature. Therefore, the knowledge gaps about the species and their geographic distributions, in addition to information about the biological traits (eg. advertisement call, larval stage, body size and reproductive modes) of frogs that occur in the Cerrado are important information given that in view of the advance of deforestation and the ecological importance of this group. Thus, it is interesting to investigate what is known about this ecologically relevant group of animals, to identify patterns and strategies to fill gaps in knowledge about the Cerrado anurofauna.

3
  • ELAINE SILVIA DUTRA
  • Etnoecologia no entorno de duas Unidades de Conservação do Cerrado

  • Data: 08/11/2022


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Ethnoecology analyzes the knowledge of traditional communities about the environment and its relationship with the conservation of natural areas. Urbanization around the Conservation Units (UCs) causes the vulnerability of their biodiversity and the involvement of local communities can slow this process down. In this context, the objectives of this study were to get to know the environmental perception of the residents of the buffer zone of Parque Municipal do Bacaba, a UC located in the transition zone between the Cerrado and Amazon biomes; and learn about the composition and diversity of the vegetation in your backyards. We interviewed 80 residents addressing questions about the park and its biota; and on native and non-native plant species that occur on their properties. We recorded a total of 545 plant species, distributed in 370 genera and 112 families, the most representative in relation to the number of species: Fabaceae, Araceae, Cactaceae, Arecaceae and Apocynaceae. In the backyards the average of exotic species was higher than the average of native species. Among exotic species, 30 are invasive and can potentially spread to the PMB causing ecological impacts on native flora and fauna. The main growth habit of the plant component of the properties was the herbaceous. The PMB is a UC instituted in an environment where there are several anthropic interventions that can compromise its function and conservation strategy. In this respect, monitoring its buffer zone can assist in the management of the vegetation in this area, mitigating the direct ecological impacts on the fauna and flora native to the PMB.

4
  • FRANCIMEIRE FERNANDES FERREIRA
  • Guilda alimentar de morcegos frugívoros em escala de paisagem Amazônia-Ecótono-Cerrado

  • Data: 06/12/2022


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Understanding the patterns of ecosystem cycles is fundamental for ecology, since a good part of the natural environments are being fragmented by strong impacts on inappropriate land use, as occurs in the extensive ecotonal region between the Amazon and Cerrado biomes. Chiropterans have high diversity in these biomes and have an important ecological role, such as phytophagous bats that feed on plant parts, ensuring the pollination and dispersion of a range of plant species. Our research aimed to understand this bat-plant interaction on a geographic scale between Amazon-Ecotone-Cerrado, in order to assess the plant diversity associated with bats, as well as responses to fragmentation based on plant resources, ecological relationships and the importance of fruit bats in the germination of these plant species. We captured frugivorous bats in 24 connected and isolated forest remnants distributed in the Amazon (n=8), Ecotone (n=8) and Cerrado (n=8) biome. The bats were captured with mist nets and the feces collected were screened in the laboratory and submitted to germination experiments. We also analyzed the bat-plant interactions and tested the effects of different treatments of post-digestive tract seeds to verify which treatment best meets the germination process, where finally we provide a protocol for carrying out these experiments. We identified 77 seed morphotypes with similar Cerrado and Ecotone. The networks identified 348 interactions distributed in 178 links. The germination results showed that the treatment of unwashed seeds is the most viable in experiments with seeds after the digestive tract of bats, when compared to the other treatments. The results show the importance of broad studies to understand bat-plant interactions, add a protocol for germination experiments and reinforce the importance of frugivory by bats for native plant maintenance

5
  • FACUNDO ALVAREZ
  • Hiperdominância espaço-temporal de árvores do Cerrado

  • Data: 21/12/2022


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The Cerrado: a global biodiversity hotspot, the second largest biome in South America, the largest neotropical savannah ecosystem, it is also the biome with the lowest conservation indices and the greatest anthropic degradative effects of soil use and conversion. Different investigations have contributed to the knowledge of this megadiverse biome, however, it still faces knowledge gaps: How many species does the Cerrado have? What is the most common species and family? What are the environmental limits of the Cerrado and savannah ecosystems in South America? What is the current conservation status of these species? and, will environmental niches be contemplated in the face of future climate changes?. Based on local regression models and species distribution models, we were able to contribute and reduce these knowledge gaps. In this sense, our research allows us to identify the following points: 1) the Cerrado shows dominance in tree species: 30 species of tree biodiversity represent more than 50% of all individuals (585 species and 219850 individuals); 2) The most common species in the Cerrado is Qualea parviflora (7.2% of all species and 15752 ind.) and the dominant family is Vochysiaceae (21 species and 37261 ind.); 3) We know 36% of all tree biodiversity in the Cerrado, our estimates point to the existence of 1605 species of trees, of which 1020 species are still waiting to be discovered and identified; 4) The records of the presence of the hyperdominant species of the Cerrado make it possible to calculate the environmental adequacy of the savannah ecosystems of South America; 5) Only 37% of the 585 hyperdominant species recorded for the Cerrado are within Protected Areas and 1% in Indigenous Lands; 6) Due to anthropic actions, the Cerrado lost 2.40x107 km2 from 1985 (1.11x108 km2) to 2020 (8.73x107 km2); 7) The predictions of environmental adequacy of the hyperdominant Cerrado species overlap 8.9% with Protected Areas and 8% with Indigenous Lands; 8) The distribution patterns of the 30 hyperdominant species, for the present and future scenarios, showed spatial stability of ~771675 km2, gain of new environmental niches of ~68106 km2 and loss of environmental suitability of ~52240 km2. The Cerrado has one tenth of the species diversity estimated for the Amazon. However, the accumulated rates of deforestation and degradation are higher for the Cerrado, triggering negative synergistic mechanisms of an anthropic-environmental type with irreversible effects on biodiversity and derived ecosystem services. The environmental complexity inherent to the Cerrado is difficult to understand and dismember, which makes conservation very difficult, even so, there are countless investigations that point out the ways to be followed to conserve it and to conserve the culture of its original peoples.

     

2021
Dissertações
1
  • RAYLEEN WHAITI LOPES DA SILVA
  • Orientador : JOAQUIM MANOEL DA SILVA
  • Data: 02/03/2021


  • Mostrar Abstract
2
  • BRUNO ARAÚJO DE SOUZA
  • Ecologia populacional de Ameiva ameiva (Squamata, Teiidae) na transição Cerrado-Amazônia

  • Data: 26/03/2021


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  • The age structure of natural populations is in constant fluctuation due to the influence of genetic, ecological, or environmental factors upon births, deaths, and migratory movements. We investigated the population ecology of Ameiva ameiva to assess the effects of microclimatic variables (temperature and humidity) on the population age structure. We monitored lizards for two years (August 2015 to August 2017) with 25 pitfall-traps along a vegetation gradient in Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We use automatic data loggers in all traps to obtain microclimatic parameters. The first two PCA axes explained 86% of the variation in the microclimate variables, describing an environmental gradient of temperature decrease and humidity increase in the cerrado sensu stricto to cerradão. We found a higher frequency of captures in the cerrado sensu stricto than in the cerradão and in months with low precipitation. A. ameiva showed seasonal reproduction with a low overlap of generations and recruitment in April and an annual life cycle. The spatio-temporal variation in the captures of A. ameiva is primarily influenced by absolute maximum temperature and maximum daily relative humidity. This may be related to the species’ morphological and physiological characteristics, which allows for a wide variety of habitats and enhanced thermoregulation and foraging opportunities.

3
  • SUEIDE VILELA FERREIRA
  • O RIO ARAGUAIA ESTÁ PARA PEIXE?

    AVALIAÇÃO DA PESCA BASEADA NA MODELAGEM ECOSSISTÊMICA

  • Data: 26/03/2021


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  • Ecosystems provide us with various ecosystem services (direct and indirect), which can produce financial benefits in favor of the economic, ecological and sociological sectors. An example is fishing, as a source of income generation. When fish stocks are extracted outside their allowed size, the result is overfishing, which causes degradation of the ecosystem and can damage the ecological and economic sectors. In this way, our objective was to evaluate the ecosystem and simulate the impact of fishing effort on the biomass of the species of a stretch of the Upper Araguaia River in the years 2013 and 2017, through the construction of a trophic web model. For this, we use the modeling software Ecopath with Ecosim and ecosystemic indicators. As a result, we obtained a model of the trophic web with the target species of fishing in the Upper Rio Araguaia section that presented defined trophic levels, with alternate control in bottom-up (producers and detritivores) and top-down (key species). Ecosystem indicators indicated that fishing had oscillations in focus between the years 2015 to 2017, with catches concentrated in species of trophic level category three, with a fall in predatory species. This shows that fishing is concentrated in different species that are part of the same trophic level. However, the indicators pointed out that this increase is minimal, informing that fishing in the Upper Rio Araguaia section is sustainable. The simulation of fishing efforts in the scenarios between 2013 and 2023 indicated a drop in biomass for future scenarios, compromising five species, three key species: Sorubimichtys planiceps, Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum and Piaractus brachypomus. The reduction in the biomass of these species should lead to a decrease in their stock and change the dynamics of the ecosystem. Phractocephalus hemioliopterus and Cichla ocellaris species indicated overfishing with fishing effort in future scenarios. Both are predatory and economically interesting species, and their reduction negatively affects ecosystem services and increases the likelihood of local extinction. In general, the scenario of decline of these species alerts us to the need for sustainable alternatives for the management of fish stocks. In this sense, as much as the indicators show us that fishing in this stretch of the Upper Araguaia River is currently sustainable, there is still a need to pay attention to fish stocks of commercial interest.

4
  • ALINE CRISTINA FERRAGUTTI
  • Padrões espaço-temporais de dispersão de sementes de espécies arbóreas úteis para a recuperação de áreas degradadas na região de transição Cerrado-Amazônia

  • Data: 22/06/2021


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  • The characterization of the phenological patterns of tree species is important information for better planning the collection of fruits and seeds in the field, which is key to successful forest restoration projects. In this work we use a database from the Associação Rede de Sementes do Xingu that has 25 groups of seed collectors spread across 17 municipalities in Mato Grosso. This database, that contains information for 142 tree species used in forest restoration actions and the date that seeds were collected in the field during an eight years period (2010-2018), was used to answer three questions: 1) What is the fruits and seed dispersion period for each of these species? 2) What is the spatial and temporal variation in the production of fruits and seeds for these species? 3) Do species with different dispersion syndromes or successional groups differ in terms of the fruit dispersion period? The results showed a group of 12 species with fruit dispersion in 10 or more months of the year. Byrsonima cydoniifolia and Spondias mombin had production in all months of the year, with great spatial variation in the fruit dispersion period. Regardless of the dispersion syndrome or successional group, the number of species producing fruits was higher at the end of the dry period and at the beginning of the rainy period for all species. Most species with small seeds are pioneers and species with large seeds are climaxes. The results show great spatial variability for the period of fruit and seed dispersion in most of the studied tree species, which has important implications for planning seed collection activities at local and regional scales.

5
  • SARAH PEREIRA BARROS
  • Determinantes da estrutura de comunidades de Aves no ecótono Cerrado-Amazônia.

  • Data: 04/08/2021


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  • The structure of ecological communities can be defined by several biotic and abiotic factors, and the relative influence of those factors on community assembly processes may operate at different spatial scales. In this project, our aim was to understand the ecological and historical processes that determined the structure and assembly of bird communities in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone. To do so, we proposed the following question: which factors act on the beta diversity and phylobetadiversity patterns of bird communities along the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone? We proposed three distinct biological hypotheses: 1) Give the high vegetation heterogeneity of the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, and the associated niche availability, we expect that climatic variables (as a proxy for vegetation heterogeneity) will be more important than geographic distance in determining the spatial variation of communities. Being so, we predict that there will be greater compositional dissimilarity (beta diversity and phylobetadiversity) associated with environmental variables than with geographic distance alone in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone communities, while the opposite will be observed for both Cerrado and Amazon communities. 2) In addition, given the high niche availability, we hypothesize that there will be an accumulation of species from both biomes in ecotone communities, leading to an increase in alpha and phylogenetic diversity in these communities compared to Cerrado and Amazon communities. If that is true, we expect that the environmental predictors will estimate higher values of alpha and phylogenetic diversity in the communities closer to the ecotone. 3) On the other hand, it is possible that the interaction between species (i.e., competition) is a more important biotic filter than the biotic and abiotic filters mentioned above. If this hypothesis is true, we predict that a) the community assembly in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone will be better explained by a mathematical model of competitive exclusion and; b) there will be smaller alpha diversity, but higher phylogenetic diversity in communities in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone, since closely related species will tend not to co-occur locally. This study was developed using data from communities distributed in the Cerrado and Amazon biomes, including the extensive ecotone between them. For this, we compiled a database with the bird communities of each biome through a wide survey of scientific articles. To investigate beta diversity patterns we use the Generalized Dissimilarity Model (GDM), and also the phylogenetic informed version of the same model, PhyloGDM. In addition, we used a Bayesian hierarchical approach estimated using an Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) algorithm to estimate alpha and phylogenetic diversity in terms of environmental predictors. Finally, to investigate whether the interaction between species (i.e., competitive exclusion) was an important factor determining community assmbly in the region, we used the CAMI (Community Assembly Model Inference) analysis. The results showed that environmental variables, such as seasonality, isothermality and average temperature, were the most important determinants of beta and phylobetadiversity patterns of bird communities in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone. Environmental predictors did not estimate higher alpha and phylogenetic diversity in ecotone communities. The competitive exclusion model was not the most important in the assembly of the ecotone communities, but a neutral model of species accumulation from both biomes. Finally, we conclude that the environmental factors linked to niche diversity associated with vegetation heterogeneity are important factors sustaining bird diversity in the Cerrado-Amazon ecotone.

6
  • LAURA VANESSA FERREIRA DOS SANTOS
  • Evolução das áreas de distribuição e do nicho climático em Amphisbaena (Squamata, Amphisbaenia).

  • Data: 05/08/2021


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  • Climate is one of the main determinants of species distribution patterns and, together with life history particularities, will also influence species range size. Since the species climatic niches evolve over space and time, they will clearly influence lineage diversification patterns. The more evolutionarily related the species are, they will tend to present higher behavioral, ecological and morphological similarities, and there is also a tendency for species to maintain a climatic niche that is similar to that used by their ancestors. In this work, we investigated the patterns of climatic niche and range size evolution of species of the genus Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenia) under a phylogenetically informed perspective and taking into account their differences in body size. These organisms are highly adapted burrowing animals, which has clear implications on their thermal physiology, since they will be under the restrictions of underground environments for their thermoregulation. In this way, and considering that these are ectothermic animals, their activity patterns are highly influenced by abiotic factors, specifically by temperature and humidity variations. Thus, the burrowing habits might be one of the main determinants that led to the differentiation of climatic niches within the group, since it is directly related to their morphological characteristics and locomotion strategies. Being so, we investigated the correlations among the ecological variables of niche breadth and range size with morphological traits assumed to be determinants of dispersion probability of the species (snout-vent length and body diameter). The analyses were done using all 107 currently recognized Amphisbaena species, while controlling for their evolutionary relationships. Considering the energetical restrictions related to body size, we hypothesized that species depicting small body sizes will tend to have more specialized physiological demands and, therefore, more restricted range sizes and smaller climatic niche breadths. To do so, we compiled data on the distribution and body size of Amphisbaena from the scientific literature, and used genetic data and a philogenetic imputation method to generate phylogenetic hypothesis including the species for which no genetic data was available on GenBank. Our results indicate that larger species tend to depict larger range sizes, and that this pattern has no phylogenetic autocorrelation. These findings are important advances in developing theoretical ecological and biogeographic interpretations on the evolutionary patterns of this group.

7
  • CAMILA SILVA BORGES
  • RESISTÊNCIA TÉRMICA E PARÂMETROS FOTOSSINTÉTICOS EM ESPÉCIES LENHOSAS NA TRANSIÇÃO AMAZÔNIA-CERRADO

  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 14/09/2021


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • XXXX

8
  • MÁRCIA CARDOSO DA SILVA
  • DINÂMICA PÓS-FOGO E REGENERAÇÃO NATURAL DE UMA ÁREA MINERADA NA TRANSIÇÃO CERRADO-AMAZÔNIA

  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 16/09/2021


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  • O fogo pode provocar mudanças na estrutura e na dinâmica das comunidades vegetais do Cerrado. No entanto, ainda sabemos pouco como esse distúrbio afeta a vegetação em áreas revegetadas, e como a regeneração se desenvolve em locais utilizados para extração de cascalho, o que dificulta a restauração e o manejo adequado dessas áreas. Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a dinâmica da vegetação de uma área revegetada com sete espécies plantadas em 2013 e analisar a regeneração natural e a similaridade entre a vegetação regenerante (área minerada) e remanescente (entorno). Em 2019, após um intervalo de quatro anos do último inventário, e um ano depois de um incêndio, quantificamos e medimos a altura e o diâmetro de todos os indivíduos sobreviventes, queimados, recrutados, e rebrotados por espécie. As taxas de mortalidade foram elevadas para todas as espécies plantadas, sendo ainda maiores para aquelas de menor porte. Jacaranda cuspidifolia e Astronium fraxinifolium apresentaram reduzida mortalidade e elevados valores em área basal e ganho em biomassa. Por outro lado, Tachigali vulgaris apresentou o maior crescimento e ganho em biomassa por indivíduo. Verificamos que a vegetação regenerante apresenta baixa similaridade florística com a vegetação remanescente, o que pode estar relacionado às difíceis condições encontradas na área minerada. Acreditamos que as espécies plantadas podem ser indicadas para a restauração de áreas cujas condições de degradação sejam similares às do presente estudo. Entretanto, um único evento de fogo pode ser suficiente para atrasar o crescimento das espécies e a regeneração natural, sendo indispensável evitar os incêndios.

9
  • GEANE RODRIGUES DE SOUZA
  • Variação individual no canto de anúncio de Scinax fuscomarginatus (lutz, 1925) (Anura, Hylidae): uma análise ao longo dos anos e ao longo da noite

  • Data: 27/10/2021


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  • For Anurans, vocalizations are strictly important, commonly produced during the breeding season, they are one of the main forms of communication for the group and are used mainly to attract reproductive partners and defend territories. This can serve as a basis for understanding behavioral mechanisms such as individual recognition, sexual selection and energy expenditure of individuals. We analyzed which factors influence the variation of the acoustic parameters, at intra-individual and inter-individual levels of a population of Scinax fuscomarginatus. We assessed the acoustic characteristics of 101 individuals' ad calls over six breeding seasons. We identified that all the acoustic parameters of the announcement song can be used for individual recognition, with the maximum frequency being the most prominent. Both the body condition of the individuals, the temperature of the environment and the reproductive seasons (Time) influenced the acoustic vestments of the advertising corners. We observed that, with the exception of Maximum frequency, all other acoustic parameters were influenced by the ambient temperature negatively (duration of the singing, number of pulses, dominant frequency, minimum frequency) and positively (pulse rate, singing rate). This study provides data on the variation of acoustic characteristics in the species and on these results, we discuss its implications for the evolution of the signal, choice of partner, for taxonomic purposes and function and mechanisms of acoustic communication. We conclude that the high variation can be important for the process of choosing a partner, and sexual selection. As they are less invasive, these study methods can be useful for conservation purposes, as they provide essential information about the population without direct impact.

10
  • TAYNÃ FERNANDES NUNES
  • ANÁLISE DO ESTRESSE HÍDRICO EM ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS NA TRANSIÇÃO CERRADO-AMAZÔNIA

  • Data: 30/11/2021


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  • The increase in the frequency and intensity of severe droughts can change the structure, productivity and composition of forests by increasing tree mortality rates. Therefore, hydraulic characteristics are fundamental traits to predict potential effects of how climate change may affect forest dynamics. We explore here the variation in stomatal regulation and water vulnerability (P50) and associate these characteristics with the vital rates of tree species in a Cerrado-Amazon transition forest, where water stress is more accentuated. The general objectives of the study were to quantify stomatal regulation strategies in a transitional forest between the Amazon and the Cerrado and to define ecophysiological thresholds that indicate the water vulnerability of different species in the region. The following hypotheses were tested: (i) Tanguro tree species do not fully open their stomata during the day; (ii) the trees in these environments have a hydraulic pathway that is too resistant to embolism; (iii) trees that do not regulate water loss during the day (leave the stomata open) are more likely to die during droughts. We found that: (i) there was low stomatal regulation among species, but that some species manage to reach a high range of mean values of leaf water potential (Ψf); (ii) the average loss of conductivity value (P50) was no less negative than other Amazonian forests; (iii) Resistance to cavitation was positively related to the mortality rate. These results suggest that tree species at Tanguro have different ecological strategies to deal with environmental water stress.

Teses
1
  • THIAGO BARROS MIGUEL
  • AVALIANDO O GRADIENTE LATITUDINAL DE RIQUEZA DE ESPÉCIES DE ODONATA EM CERRADO, TRANSIÇÃO E AMAZÔNIA

     

     

  • Data: 23/03/2021


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  • The interest in understanding how species richness per unit area decreases with increasing latitude and elevation extends for over a century and a half, since early naturalists such as Darwin and Wallace began to observe the species distribution patterns. A great number of global patterns of biodiversity variation have been and continue to be explored, such as spatial scale-related richness variation (species-area relationships as well as local-regional richness) and along gradients. through space or environmental conditions. These patterns include: i) latitudinal gradient of species richness (GLRE); ii) the positive correlation between the latitudinal range extent of organisms occurring at a given latitude (Rapoport effect); iii) the relation of the variation in body size along environmental gradients proposed by Bergmann in 1848 (Bergmann clines). The objective of this study is to evaluate the distribution pattern of adult Odonata species in Cerrado, Cerrado-Amazon Transition and Amazon areas testing the existence of the latitudinal gradient in species richness.

2
  • LEONARDO MARACAHIPES DOS SANTOS
  • Impactos de mudanças no uso da terra sobre a integridade de florestas de zonas ripárias na Amazônia

  • Data: 24/03/2021


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  • Riparian forests are critical in protecting biodiversity and water resources and are a priority for conservation in anthropized landscapes, but fragmentation associated with the expansion of agriculture in the tropics threatens their ecological integrity. In this context, we compared the structure, diversity, and functional attributes of tropical riparian forests within intact watersheds (n=4) and in agricultural landscapes (n=6) in a region of intense soybean production in the southern Brazilian Amazon. We studied riparian forest plots distributed in ten watersheds, ranging in width from 120 to 210 m, with forests in agricultural landscapes maintained to comply with Federal Law 12.651, which deals with the protection of native vegetation. We found that riparian forests in agricultural landscapes had fewer tree and sapling species and had higher proportions of opportunistic and pioneer tree species compared to intact riparian forests. We also found greater variation in tree species composition and greater internal dissimilarity in areas in agricultural landscapes compared to intact forests. Forests closer to streams in agricultural landscapes and watersheds with intact forests were more similar to each other. We analyzed 123 species for their functional attributes, with 52% common to both environments, 27% restricted to agricultural landscapes, and 21% to intact forests. Leaf thickness and potassium concentration were the functional attributes with the greatest phenotypic plasticity for species common to both environments. Species restricted to intact forests had greater specific leaf area compared to species restricted to agricultural landscapes. We further note that in intact forests species tend to adopt acquisitive strategies and in forests situated in agricultural landscapes resource-conservative strategies predominate. Our results suggest that in agricultural landscapes, wider strips than required by Law would be necessary to maintain the structure, diversity, and functional attributes of riparian forest tree species in southern Amazonia. Thus, the minimum 30 m riparian strips required by the Law may therefore be insufficient to prevent long-term changes in the composition, structure, and functional attributes of these forests.

3
  • DOMINGOS LUCAS DOS SANTOS SILVA
  • BIOGEOGRAFIA E ECOLOGIA DE SAMAMBAIAS EM AMBIENTES RUPESTRES NO SUL DA AMAZÔNIA

  • Orientador : PEDRO VASCONCELLOS EISENLOHR
  • Data: 21/09/2021


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  • Ferns are associated with humid environments, but they can colonize rocky environments due to the large adaptive plasticity of this group. In this study, we examined floristics, biogeography and conservation issues, and we projected the potential effects of climate change on geographic distribution of ferns from rocky environments collected in plots of 1-ha in rocky outcrops of the Southern Amazon and the contact region between the Amazon and Cerrado domains, Brazil. Considering the sampled species, we compiled their occurrences and conservation attributes from online databases. We predicted the impact of climate change on future (until 2070) potential distribution using eight algorithms, which are based on regression, machine learning, and distance and bioclimatic envelope. We showed that the Pteridaceae family and the Anemia genus (Anemiaceae) seem to be characteristic of rocky environments of the Southern Amazon and in the contact region between the Amazon and Cerrado domains, as they are the most representative taxa. The sampled species have a wide distribution and two are restricted to Brazil. Among the taxa identified, two are classified as “Least Concern” and one as “Vulnerable”; In turn, the other taxa do not have enough data to be included in any conservation category, and such taxa were evaluated by using the extent of occurrence and the area of occupation. We also showed that in future climatic conditions, potential changes will negatively influence the distribution of fern species, with wide or low distribution in the Neotropical region. However, not all fern species will respond similarly. Changes in potential species distribution areas are projected to occur in all sub-regions and transition areas of the Neotropics, as well as in the Amazon and in the transition area between the Amazon and the Cerrado. The potential distribution of some species will become fragmented and with abrupt decline of suitability areas between the current and predicted climate by 2070. Areas with maximum suitability for fern species in the Neotropical region will be essentially restricted to Panama; in the Amazon and Brazilian Cerrado-Amazon transition area, maximum suitability may be restricted to the northern and northeastern regions, respectively. The distribution ranges of fern species imply impacts on the functioning, resilience and structure of the ecosystem and on the diversity of ferns in the Neotropical region.

4
  • ANGELE TATIANE MARTINS OLIVEIRA
  • Efeitos da mineração sobre populações de mamíferos de médio e grande porte

  • Data: 05/10/2021


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  • Mammalian fauna has intrinsic habits in landscape use, most of which require large areas to perform their vital functions and consequently contribute to the ecosystem by dispersing individuals. Altered landscapes for exploitation of mineral resources suffer from distinct disturbances and impacts. In this regard, we have gathered current knowledge available on the Web of Science and Scopus platforms. We reviewed 39 articles published in journals that addressed the impacts of mining on medium and large terrestrial and arboreal mammal populations. We categorized the articles according to the methodological approach, thus investigating the main information collected between the articles as the main collection methods and identifying the main reported impacts. We describe here trends in the distribution of studies among the countries of the world and, therefore, investigate the indices of human development and per capita income of the respective countries. We analyzed the density of ore points cataloged in the Mineral Resources Data System database between species geographic distribution areas, then showed which species present the highest threat levels due to mining. Among the 153 species recorded in this study, we identified that for 130 of them, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) does not mention that, among the threat relationship to species, mining activities can be impactful and significant. Thus, we suggest the development of new studies especially for species with large knowledge gaps. We also recommend the use of theoretical approaches and environmental suitability modeling to predict if there will be viable conditions for the species analyzed.

2020
Dissertações
1
  • KARLA MONIQUE SILVA CARNEIRO
  •  

    EFEITO DE FORMIGAS NO AUMENTO REPRODUTIVO DE ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MIRMECÓFILAS

  • Orientador : ESTEVAO ALVES DA SILVA
  • Data: 28/02/2020


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  • In plant-ant interactions, plants provide extrafloral nectar as a food resource for ants and the latter act as plant guards. Issue less explored in ant-plant studies are (i) the distribution of ants on plant parts; (ii) the ant-plant mutualism on harsh seasons, such as Cerrado’s dry period; and (iii) the effect of ants on fruit set (in comparison to folivory). Here, by assigning plants as either ant-present or absent, we investigated the influence of ants on the fruit production of Bionia coriacea, Cochlospermum regium, Peixotoa tomentosa and Vigna firmula, all of which bloom during the Cerrado’s dry period (May to August). In these plants, the extrafloral nectar season coincides with the flowering phenology. We also recorded the spatial segregation of ants (on extrafloral nectaries, leaves, flowers, stem, buds and fruits) in order to examine its distribution pattern along the day. Camponotus crassus was the only ant species that consistently visited the plants. In general, a marked spatial segregation was noted, with ant visits concentrated on extrafloral nectaries. Ants rarely visited reproductive structure, but even so, ant presence on plants was related with increased fruit set. Plant species with ants experienced up to 55% gains in fruit set, in comparison to ant-absent treatments; nonetheless, in B. coriaceum, ant presence decreased fruit set by 11%. Our data shows that the outcomes of ant-plant relationships cannot be generalized, but in general, ants do benefit their plant partners. To conclude, we report two all new extrafloral nectary plants, C. regium and V. firmula.

2
  • IGOR ARAÚJO DE SOUZA
  • MUDANÇAS CLIMÁTICAS: IMPACTOS, ADAPTAÇÃO E VULNERABILIDADE DE ÁRVORES DA BORDA SUL-AMAZÔNICA ÀS ALTAS TEMPERATURAS

  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 02/03/2020


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  • Understand the temperatures tolerance limits of plant leaves is essential on a warming planet, especially to predict changes in biodiversity, carbon stock, and interactions between vegetation and climate. Studies assessing the thermotolerance of native tree species are rare, which limits the ability to assess the risks associated with global warming. Here we investigated the leaf thermotolerance, strategies of leaves temperature regulation and possible responses to future warming of coocurrent tree species (Qualea parviflora Mart., Pseudobombax longiflorum (Mart.) A. Robyns, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne e Vatairea macrocarpa (Benth.) Ducke.) in savannas (rocky cerrado and typical cerrado) and a forest (cerradão) on the southern amazonian border. We quantified the 50% loss of photosystem II function, maximum leaf temperature and its variation, air temperature, stomatal conductance and leaf functional attributes. To assess the impacts of future warming, we quantify the current thermal safety margin and future absolute leaf temperatures. Thermotolerance ranged from 46.7 °C to 50.9 °C between species, and was higher for forest individuals. Individuals with lower maximum leaf temperature presented higher thermotolerance, and we observed that different environmental conditions determine different thermotolerance values. We highlight that savanna-grown individuals, even though they have greater efficiency in leaf heat dissipation, are more vulnerable to extreme high-temperature conditions and therefore more likely to be negatively affected by global warming. We observed that thermal limits of some tropical species are near to the maximum temperatures experienced, which presupposes that these species may be severely affected by rising global temperatures. This vulnerability could lead to unexpected and drastic changes in species composition, structure, distribution and interactions that occur in different environments.

3
  • Luciana Januário de Souza
  • SECA NO ÍNDICE DE ÁREA FOLIAR NA TRANSIÇÃO AMAZÔNIA-CERRADO

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 20/03/2020


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  • Climate change resulting from deforestation and global warming has been a major cause of biodiversity loss and environmental services in the remaining vegetation of the Amazon/Cerrado transition (ACT) (BONINI 2019). ACT vegetation is hyperdynamic, with high mortality and recruitment rates compared with the central areas of the two biomes (MARIMON et al., 2014). Consequently, these vegetations have great annual seasonality in the leaf area index (LAI) (FREITAG et al., 2018) and high sensitivity to climate variations, especially the extreme drought events recorded in recent years (MALHI et al., 2004; PHILLIPS et al., 2004; DE OLIVEIRA et al., 2017; PEIXOTO, et al., 2017). Therefore, major efforts are needed to fill knowledge gaps and subsidize conservation actions that take into account the ability of ACT forest and savanna species to respond to climate variations (MARIMON et al., 2006; SOLÓRZANO et al., 2012 ).

4
  • IZABEL AMORIM DE SOUZA
  • EFEITOS DA PERDA DE HABITAT SOBRE POPULAÇÕES DE PEQUENOS MAMÍFEROS EM UM CERRADO DA AMÉRICA DO SUL

  • Orientador : DIONEI JOSE DA SILVA
  • Data: 27/03/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Changes in landscape attributes lead to habitat loss, which is the reduction in the amount of native vegetation area available for species to survive and persist in the landscape. These landscape changes, such as habitat degradation, have been a serious problem for small mammals. Thus, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of habitat loss on the abundance, extinction, body condition and functional traits of small mammals along a gradient of fragmented landscapes. Our results show that habitat loss can affect populations of small mammals, leading to population decline, until they reach an extinction threshold. This effect was more evident for Thrichomys pachyurus, who is a habitat specialist, who had both its abundance and occurrence affected as well as his body condition. Rhipidomys macrurus (specialists) showed no significant differences between the landscapes. Gracilinanus agilis (generalist) had a significantly greater abundance in areas with less than 50% vegetation, but its body condition was not affected as well as the other species. Generalists such as Didelphis albiventris and Thylamys macrurus did not show significant effects of habitat loss on any of the variables evaluated. These conclusions will be useful for future decisions on landscape management in this region.

    Changes in landscape attributes lead to habitat loss, which is the reduction in the amount of native vegetation area available for species to survive and persist in the landscape. These landscape changes, such as habitat degradation, have been a serious problem for small mammals. Thus, the objective of this work is to investigate the effect of habitat loss on the abundance, extinction, body condition and functional traits of small mammals along a gradient of fragmented landscapes. Our results show that habitat loss can affect populations of small mammals, leading to population decline, until they reach an extinction threshold. This effect was more evident for Thrichomys pachyurus, who is a habitat specialist, who had both its abundance and occurrence affected as well as his body condition. Rhipidomys macrurus (specialists) showed no significant differences between the landscapes. Gracilinanus agilis (generalist) had a significantly greater abundance in areas with less than 50% vegetation, but its body condition was not affected as well as the other species. Generalists such as Didelphis albiventris and Thylamys macrurus did not show significant effects of habitat loss on any of the variables evaluated. These conclusions will be useful for future decisions on landscape management in this region.

     

5
  • JOSIENE NAVES CARRIJO
  • Atributos Funcionais como Indicadores de Estartégias Ecológicas de Plantas Lenhosas de Formações Savânicas do Cerrado

  • Orientador : EDDIE LENZA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Data: 22/04/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The functioning of plant communities in different habitats depends both on the environment, acting as an environmental filter, and on the functional adjustments of the different species to environmental conditions. There are large gaps in knowledge regarding functional adjustments of vegetation at community and specific level. Therefore, we determine here the functional attributes of woody plants of two savanna environments of the Cerrado Biome occurring on different substrates: 1. Alluvial Cerrado (CA); 2. Typical Cerrado (TC). We hypothesized that the functional attributes of the community and species differ between the two environments, since the substrates of these environments differ in the availability of water and nutrients to plants. We sampled six attributes (LA, LT, SLA, SSD, Btrel and HTOT) from 101 common or exclusive species from each environment. Alluvial Cerrado plants have smaller leaf area and bark thickness, higher specific leaf area and wood density and less relative bark thickness and total maximum height. The species common to both environments have high phenotypic plasticity of attributes. Thus, we conclude that: 1. Thicker leaves, with larger specific leaf area in the Cerrado Alluvial, represent resource acquisition strategy, allowing the maximization of the photosynthetic rate; 2. Smaller and higher density plants have functional adjustments in response to lower water availability; 3. Thicker bark makes the typical Cerrado shrub species more resistant to burning. Thus, the structuring of woody communities in both environments depends on the functional adjustment of plants to water availability and intensity of burning.

6
  • TAYNÁ BARBOZA FERRARI
  • Determinantes da diversidade genética de lagartos no Cerrado brasileiro

  • Data: 22/05/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Geographic patterns of genetic diversity have the potential to provide a better understanding of natural populations demographic trajectory and the evolutionary processes that shaped biodiversity in complex biogeographic systems. Given the complex recent geologic and climatic history of the Neotropical region, elucidating these mechanisms is essential to provide a more complete evolutionary picture of its biodiversity. Here, we tested the influence of historical, ecological and environmental predictors in determining the genetic diversity of Brazilian Cerrado lizards. To this end, we compared populations that differed in altitude, distance from the center and periphery of the biome, and in areas with distinct stability levels of vegetation distribution over the time. We also used body size as a surrogate for dispersal potential of the different lizard species. We hypothesized that populations at higher altitudes, close to the center of the Cerrado, with larger body sizes and in areas of greater vegetation stability will depict higher levels of genetic diversity. We compiled mitochondrial DNA sequences from previously published works on 34 lizard species collected within the limits of the Brazilian Cerrado. We defined sampling units using the geographic location of the species and a Bayesian implementation of the general mixed Yule-coalescent model (bGMYC), a method that investigates species limits and estimates groups that are potentially evolving separately. Subsequently, we calculated nucleotide diversity, a metric used to measure the genetic diversity of each sample unit, which we termed “populations”. We used the variables altitude, distance to the center of the Cerrado, distance to the margins of the Cerrado, lizard snout-vent length, and the number of times that climatic changes altered the Cerrado landscape in vegetation terms as predictors of genetic diversity in a machine learning multivariate analysis using Random Forests. We also employed two powerful modelling tools (SPDE – Stochastic Partial Differential Equations, and INLA – Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation) to create hierarchical spatial models that allowed the estimation of genetic diversity for non-sampled regions. Our results indicate that populations at higher and lower altitudes have higher genetic diversity compared to populations at intermediate altitudes. In addition, populations further from the Cerrado’s periphery and with smaller body sizes exhibited higher genetic diversity. Finally, genetic diversity values were lesser explained by vegetation stability than any other variable. Hence, the environmental determinants and ecological characteristics of the species better explained the genetic diversity of lizards in the Brazilian Cerrado than the historical stability.

7
  • RODRIGO SILVA BENSI
  • PRODUÇÃO DE FRUTOS EM FLORESTAS INTACTAS E DEGRADADAS PELO FOGO NO SUL DA AMAZÔNIA

  • Data: 25/06/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • With agricultural expansion in southeastern Amazonia, transitional forest areas between the Amazon and the Cerrado are becoming increasingly degraded. Forest fragmentation tends to increase their vulnerability to fire, one of the main vectors of mortality in tropical forests, and may contribute to the formation of degraded areas, savannization of areas and transformation of the Amazon biome into Cerrado. Here we seek to understand how the fruit production behavior of 81 forest species in the Amazon-Cerrado transition at Tanguro Farm in Querência-MT. We evaluated an area of 150ha divided into three plots, Control, Annual Burn (B1yr) and Annual Burn (B3yr), during a controlled fire experiment (2004- 2010) conducted by the Amazon Environmental Research Institute (IPAM) and after end of the fire experiment (2011-2018), to investigate fruit and seed production in these areas in order to understand how the forest behaves during burning, which is very common in our region. This paper gathers information regarding total production by area over the years, comparison between areas, seasonality and individual production by species. Concluding that the fire increases the mortality of individuals, therefore there is a decrease in the fruiting pattern for the burned areas. Although statistically insignificant we observed differences in areas over the years, differences between production sites such as edge and interior of the forest and changes in individual production by species.

8
  • DEISY MARTINS DOS SANTOS
  • CONEXÃO HISTÓRICA ENTRE MATA ATLÂNTICA E FLORESTA AMAZÔNICA: PASSADO OU PRESENTE?

  • Data: 10/07/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • One of the greatest challenges for Conservation Biogeography is to understand the geographic distribution of species, in addition to the ecological conditions in which species are surrounded in their evolutionary and survival capacity. Among these challenges, the Wallacean deficit, which represents the gaps in the knowledge of the geographic distribution existing in most of the taxa, is one of the greatest difficulties presented to ecological studies. Despite the extremely high biodiversity and being an attractive scenario for research, the Neotropical regions, object of the present study, are still little studied, being less understood in their ecological, evolutionary, historical and original aspects. The present study aims to verify the hypothesis that (i) the Amazon Forest and the Atlantic Forest established connection in more recent periods, after the Pleistocene, contradicting the current models of their distribution. For this purpose, the potential distribution modeling of the 3 fauna species indicated above will be used, in order to (ii) point out favorable environments for the occurrence of these species in the Cerrado, through the possible past connection between these biomes of forest formations

9
  • DOUGLAS DA COSTA SANTOS
  • Flutuações Sazonais e Variação Espaçotemporal das Assembléias de Trichoptera em Córrego Intermitente

  • Orientador : RICARDO KEICHI UMETSU
  • Data: 27/08/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Variations in environmental conditions over space and time can affect the structure of the Caddisfly community. Studies that aim to verify seasonal and spatial fluctuations, are able to indicate changes that occur in the environment such as changes in land use, due to variations in the structure of the community, with the substitution of species. The objective of our work was to evaluate the effect of temporal / seasonal and limnological variations on the immature community of Caddisfly along a longitudinal gradient. Our hypothesis is that both the community structure and the limnological variables are affected by environmental variations. This study was carried out in the Bacaba stream, located in the municipality of Nova Xavantina-MT, in a transition area between Cerrado and the Amazon Forest. Collections were carried out over five years (2011 to 2016), with quarterly collections. We collected it in three portions of the stream continuum (nascent, intermediate and mouth) in 100 m linear transections, collecting substrate samples from the margins. The Caddisfly community was affected by both longitudinal (spring, intermediate and mouth), temporal (2011 to 2016) and seasonality (drought and rain) variations. The abundance differed between all the collection points as well as between the dry and rainy periods. The wealth presented a difference between the source and the mouth, being also different between the periods of the year. The composition was also different between the years, with 2016 being the least rich and abundant. Both wealth and abundance showed a positive relationship with dissolved oxygen and a negative relationship with ammonia. The results of this study allowed us to conclude that the immature community of Caddisfly present in Cerrado stream is sensitive to changes in the environment, climate and chemical composition of the water, indicating that they are excellent bioindicators of water quality and can be used in environmental monitoring and water quality for human populations.

10
  • ROSÂNGELA GAMA STRUTZ
  • Estrutura da comunidade zooplanctônica de riachos de mata de
    galeria e riachos de veredas em regiões do Cerrado, Alto
    Araguaia, Brasil

  • Data: 18/11/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The streams of gallery forest and veredas are two aquatic ecosystems associated with two important phytophysiognomies of the Brazilian Cerrado Biome. These ecosystems are little explored with few studies focused on zooplankton fauna. Thus, this study aimed to answer the following questions: (i) What is the composition of zooplanktonic species of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods in gallery forest streams and veredas? (ii) Are the richness, density, diversity and composition of zooplankton species of rotifers, cladocerans and copepods different between streams of gallery forest and streams of veredas? (iii) Does environmental variables (limnological and structural) influence the richness, density and composition of zooplankton species in streams of gallery forest and streams of veredas? Data collected between the years 2016 and 2017 from 25 streams of gallery forest and 16 streams of veredas in the Upper Araguaia river basin. The total richness in gallery forest streams was 75 taxa, with 52 taxa from Rotifera, 17 taxa from Cladocera and three orders from Copepoda (Calanoida, Cyclopoida and Harpacticoida). In streams of veredas the total richness was 53 taxa, with 39 taxa of Rotifera, nine taxa of Cladocera and two orders of Copepoda (Cyclopoida and Harpaticoida). The streams of the paths have less richness, less density and diversity and different taxon composition than streams of gallery forest. Only density was significantly related with environmental variables. Conductivity was the most important variable for streams of gallery forest. Meanwhile temperature, depth, flow, stream width and percentage of grasses were more important for streams of veredas. The difference between the richness and the composition of taxa between the two ecosystems may be related to the fact that streams of paths are spatially more isolated.

11
  • LUCAS HEBER MARIANO DOS SANTOS
  • EFEITO DE BORDA E FOGO SOBRE A COMUNIDADE REGENERANTE DE UMA FLORESTA NA TRANSIÇÃO AMAZÔNIA-CERRADO

  • Data: 30/11/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Understanding how forests and their edges behave after fire events is of the utmost importance, as it allows for a better understanding of the feedbacks that maintain the process of forest degradation beginning at the edge and advancing into the forest. However, most studies do not consider the interrelationship of disturbance that normally occur. In addition, often in studies of vegetation response to disturbances, studies do not focus on small individuals who can provide direct information about the succession process. In this study we evaluated the effects of three experimental burn regimes (unburned, burned annually and burnt three times) nine years after the last fire, from different distances to an agricultural border and canopy structure using LIDAR metrics on the diversity of two strata (Seedling: <1 cm; saplings: <5 cm in diameter) of the regenerating community of three areas in the Amazon-Cerrado transition using regressions. We found that although burnt stands regained richness compared to unburned control, the composition changed completely with the edge species advancing into the forest, this composition being controlled by the crown characteristics and distance from the edge. In addition, we found that the canopy structure is highly related to edge distance, independent of burn regime, with the lowest and least complex canopy near the edge. There was no difference in the average proportion of lianas per plot among the seedling areas, but in saplings, the area burned annually outperformed the others. In addition, the proportion of lianas per plot generally increased away from the seedling border and the tree fell. Seedling liana abundance was also higher in the unburned control, while in trees, treatments and distance to the edge had no effect on abundance. These responses point to complex patterns of degradation with various disorders interacting and acting at the same time. We conclude that the time since the last burn was not sufficient to recover the burned forests and that the distance to the edge creates a compositional gradient that allows some species to advance into the forest during the post-disturbance recovery period.

12
  • ANA LYZ MACHADO PARREIRA LÚCIO
  • MAPEAMENTO DA TRANSIÇÃO CERRADO/AMAZÔNIA E PROPOSIÇÃO DE POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 19/12/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Redefininh the vegetation of Amazonia/Cerrado transition

Teses
1
  • Ana Clara Abadia Rodrigues de Sousa
  • Padrões de diversidade e estruturadores de comunidades lenhosas de savana sobre substratos distintos

  • Orientador : EDDIE LENZA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Data: 17/04/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • In the Cerrado biome, a composition and structure of woody vegetation can be influenced by different factors that act in different spaces, especially between physiognomies with markedly different soils, such as the Typical Cerrado (CT) used on flat, deep and well-drained soils. , while the Cerrado Rupestre (CR) can establish in accidental relief, shallow soils and with rocky herring. In this study, we investigated how woody plants from two savanna environments, distinguishable by the type of substrate on the causes (CT and CR), which respond to regional (scalable and topographic) and local (edaphic properties) gradients, and determined the limits ecological changes and points of change at the community and population level. In addition, it is also available as changes in the composition and beta diversity of species, as well as changes in edaphic properties, considering two distinct environments (Cerrado Rupestre and Cerrado Típico). Our results revealed that the TC and CR environments have different ecological limits and points of change in the food and population level, considering the woody plants, both on a regional and local scale. We also show that there is a clear dissimilarity of the woody flora between CT and CR savannas, although the chemical and granulometric properties of the soil surface layers are not different between these environments. We also found that a beta diversity of the woody flora between the environments of both environments is exclusive for the replacement of species, with the most marginalized and central of the Biome being the ones that most contributed to a beta diversity. These results demonstrate that the editorial and topographic variability in the environments seems to have been more effective in explaining how changes in the responses of the communities that predict them are scalable. Our findings also revealed that, for the first time, the beta diversity standards for a woody flora in these environments are high due to the high substitution of species among communities. We believe that the high beta diversity is a reflection of the high floral variation of the woody plants, which exhibits unique flora among the sampled locations, due to their geographic and topographic characteristics, and not only due to the edaphic characteristics.

2
  • KEILA NUNES PURIFICAÇÃO
  • Interações aves frugívoras-plantas em savanas e florestas neotropicais: Uma abordagem de redes. 

  • Data: 24/04/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • NA

3
  • WESLEY JONATAR ALVES DA CRUZ
  • Estrutura funcional em comunidades e estratégias ecológicas de espécies arbóreas na transição Amazônia-Cerrado

  • Orientador : BEATRIZ SCHWANTES MARIMON
  • Data: 20/07/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The classification of plant species according to their function is an effective alternative to address ecological questions and responses of vegetation in relation to the physical environment. Understanding the importance of the variability of species strategies and functions requires the quantification of plant traits on a large scale. In this study we investigated the regenerative functional structure, trade-offs, ecological strategies and the intraspecific trait variability in a wide vegetation gradient between the Amazon and the Cerrado. We used a database composed of more than 80,000 records of functional attributes of almost 200 tree species in 39 permanent plots established in typical cerrado, cerradão, gallery forest, semideciduous seasonal forest, evergreen forest and open rain forest to answer the following questions: 1) What are the regenerative strategies and their influence on the structure of these different types of vegetation? 2) How does the functional structure change and what are the main trade-offs and strategies of the main tree species in the Amazon-Cerrado transition? 3) Is the intraspecific trait variability an indicator of better performance in forest and savanna species in multiscale? Our results showed that the species regenerative strategies are based on dry fruits dispersed by the wind or fleshy fruits dispersed by animals, being the most important zoocoria in all types of vegetation. We discovered the existence of remarkable strategies for resource use and survival in different types of vegetation. Strategies that change following the gradient from savanna and typical vegetation in the Cerrado to forest and typical in the Amazon. We record evidence that the intraspecific trait variability guarantees population growth and productivity on a regional scale. We conclude that the traits of fruits and seeds provide mechanisms for the tree species to reestablish themselves and the diversity of these characteristics can favor communities in each type of vegetation, which will allow them to withstand extreme environmental conditions. The morphological traits of leaves, bark and branches allowed us to identify ecological strategies and to classify the types of vegetation along the Amazon-Cerrado transition. We also found that not only the value of traits, but the magnitude of intraspecific variability influences the establishment and gain of aerial biomass, consequently causing an effect on local and regional demographic patterns. Our results provided indicators for predicting the response of the evaluated communities to possible environmental impacts, especially climate change, enabling better management and conservation of tree species.

4
  • MAYRA LAYRA DOS SANTOS ALMEIDA
  • Conservação de áreas naturais: Uma estratégia potencial para incrementar o serviço ecossistêmico de polinização nas culturas da soja e girassol


  • Orientador : MONICA JOSENE BARBOSA PEREIRA
  • Data: 02/09/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Human activities resulting from the intensification of agricultural in the state of Mato Grosso, have caused habitat loss, resulting in fragmented landscapes, formed by remnants of native vegetation, kept as a Legal Reserve (LR), surrounded by extensive monoculture. This change can drastically affect the pollination service provided by bees in native and cultivated areas. To understand the contribution of LR to the preservation of pollinators and consequently to the yield of soybean and sunflower crops this research was structured in three chapters with the following objectives: (1) to evaluate the role of the Cerrado as a natural support habitat for bees that provide sunflower pollination services and the contribution of pollinators to the yield of this crop; (2) to verify the influence of habitat amount and proximity to natural habitats on composition, richness and abundance of bees in adjacent sunflower crop and; (3) to evaluate the contribution of bees from Cerrado to the soybean crop yield. In the first chapter we show that the bees present in the Cerrado visit the sunflower plantation, and increase the crop yield. In chapter II, when evaluating different agricultural landscapes (natural habitat x sunflower), we showed that species richness and abundance of bees showed a positive relationship with the amount of habitat , decreasing with the increase of the distance from the crop to the natural habitat edge. In addition, we also showed that the weight of sunflower seeds varied with the distance from the natural habitat. In chapter III, when evaluating the service provided by bees from Cerrado in the pollination and soybean crop yield, we found that the plants exposed to pollinators showed a 20% increase in the production of pods and seeds. We emphasize that in this study the number of bee species was high, both in natural areas and crops, indicating the importance of preserving areas of Legal Reserve to guarantee both pollinator biodiversity and the pollination services.

5
  • GABRIEL DOS SANTOS CARVALHO
  • Influência dos fragmentos de vegetação nativa sobre o parasitismo de Inchneumonoidea em lepidópteros-praga e liberações de Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley, 1879) na cultura da soja

  • Orientador : MONICA JOSENE BARBOSA PEREIRA
  • Data: 04/09/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The agricultural expansion of soy favors the appearance of pests and the reduction of areas of natural vegetation, compromising the ecosystem services provided by beneficial insects. The control of these pests occurs through insecticides, which impact human health and the environment, in addition to harming their natural enemies. In this sense, the present thesis evaluated the influence of native habitats and flooding releases of Trichogramma pretiosum (Riley) on the parasitism of soybean pest lepidopterans. Therefore, in chapter I we evaluated, in an area, whether the distance of cultivation in relation to the Cerrado fragment interferes in the richness, abundance and rate of parasitism of lepidopteran pests by Ichneumonoidea. We observed that the distance of cultivation in relation to the edge did not affect the diversity of Ichneumonoidea, abundance and rate of parasitism, but it did influence the abundance of caterpillars, with the lowest average closest to the fragment. The diversity of Ichneumonoidea was greater in the off-season and in the vegetative. The most abundant subfamilies were Ichneumoninae, Microgastrinae, Macrocentrinae and Cremastrinae. In the second chapter, we verify whether the parasitism rate and abundance of soybean pest lepidopterans were affected by the distance and amount of natural habitat, amount of pasture and total cultivated area, in different cultivation areas. We verified that the distance affected the parasitism of the caterpillars, increasing as it approaches the natural habitat; the amount of this does not interfere with the rate of parasitism, but has significant interaction with distance. The abundance of caterpillars was not affected by distance, but was benefited by the other metrics (amount of natural habitat, amount of pasture and cultivated area). In the third chapter, we evaluated the effect of different proportions of T. pretiosum (100,000; 200,000; 300,000 wasps / ha, control 1 = without release and without application; control 2 = without release and with application). All treatments with parasitoid release kept the caterpillar population below the control level, therefore, we recommend the use of 100,000 wasps / ha as it represents a lower production cost. These results are expected to contribute to subsidize the ecological management of caterpillars in soybean crops and thus reduce the risks to biodiversity.

6
  • NORBERTO GOMES RIBEIRO JUNIOR
  • Anatomia de espécies arbóreas do sul da Amazônia como predição de impactos das mudanças ambientais

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 08/09/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Many predicted climate changes have been materializing since the early 2000s. In addition to the increase in the average temperature of the planet, tropical regions, including the Amazon Rainforest, have undergone intense drought cycles with years of less precipitation and more pronounced temperature peaks. Concomitant to these climate changes, deforestation is advancing along the edges and the major highways in the Amazon, increasing the loss of biodiversity and the effects of environmental changes. The Amazon-Cerrado (TAC) transition to the south and southeast of the Amazon is a vast area particularly sensitive to climatic factors due to the high seasonality of rainfall. In this zone, the rapid substitution of native vegetation for pastures and agriculture has destroyed ecosystems with particular characteristics and important collaboration for the environmental balance by their ecosystem services. Throughout this thesis, we have highlighted the structural particularities of TAC tree vegetation and meridional Amazon, both in case studies when evaluating anatomical-functional attributes (AFA) of species with high occurrence in the vegetation, and with comparisons of communities from different locations and patterns of AFA that allow a greater or lesser degree of resistance to the stress generated by climatic seasonality. In this perspective, we evaluated 16 plant communities using samples of leaves and stems from 932 trees. We process these samples and measure morphological, anatomical and physiological characters that we relate to the environmental characteristics of each plant community. We found that the species are endowed with different strategies to resist the seasonality of the region. While Tachigalli vulgaris is endowed with low plasticity to climatic conditions and water availability, having an apparent physiological and non-structural regulation to stress, other species of greater frequency in the sampled communities (Amaioua guianensis, Chaetocarpus echinocarpus, Miconia pyrifolia, Ocotea guianensis, Sacoglottis guianensis, Trattinnickia glaziovii and Xylopia amazonica) are notably endowed with phenotypic plasticity, being attuned to the plasticity of the wood tissue anatomy. When considering tree communities, most of them present a great diversity of strategies to deal with seasonal water stress. The comparative Cerradão vs. gallery forest revealed that despite a higher proportion of investment in xeromorphic structures, the cerradão is not endowed with excessively xeric characters and the gallery forest is endowed with greater hydraulic efficiency with minimal investment (at least in the vast majority of species) in safety hydraulic against vessel embolism. As for the comparison of the upland forest communities, we verified an interaction between xeromorphism and variations in water availability generated by seasonality. Drier communities presented for the leaves greater thickness of adaxial epidermis, smaller stomata and greater thickness of the leaf wing; and for branches the hydraulic conductivity, the average lumen area, the density of the xylemic vessels, the length and thickness of the sclerenchymatic fiber wall also varied according to our predictions, with patterns that generate greater xeromorphism and consequent hydraulic safety in the communities more seasonal. The particular responses of species to environmental variations make it difficult to analyze communities, however we were able to better understand how different taxa react to environmental stressors and how communities shape themselves to withstand the tropical seasonality that has presented intense episodes with greater frequency. It is a fact that some species have leaf adaptations such as: increase in supraepidermal structures, epidermal thickening and parenchyma that allow greater regulation of water loss. But the increase in hydraulic safety due to less efficient and safer conducting vessels is almost unanimous. Although there is investment in xeromorphic attributes, we emphasize that these communities are at risk of major changes in their structure and composition due to the intensification of stressful climatic events.

7
  • ANTONIO CARLOS SILVEIRO DA SILVA
  • O PAPEL DO FOGO E DE EVENTOS DE SECA SOBRE A DINÂMICA DE UMIDADE DO SOLO SOB FLORESTA DE TRANSIÇÃO AMAZÔNIA–CERRADO

  • Data: 23/11/2020


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Soil moisture can both affect and be affected by possible trajectories of forests impacted by disturbances. In the Amazon – Cerrado transition forests, forest fires and extreme drought events have occurred with greater intensity and frequency. With that, we evaluated the post-fire impact on the water content in the soil (Volumetric Water Content - VWC) in a portion burned every three years (2004 to 2010) and another portion burned annually (2004 to 2010), in addition to the control plot. Our data collection covered the period from 2010 to 2018, which made it possible to assess the impacts of extreme drought from 2015-2016 on the water content in the soil in the three plots. To estimate the water content in the soil, we used and evaluated the quality of two methods: time domain reflectometer (TDR) and resistivity, both methods being calibrated using the gravimetric moisture content quantification technique (Gravimetric Water Content - GWC). We tested the hypotheses that (H1) the burnt plots present higher soil moisture in the first post-fire years (between 2011 and 2012) and a reduction in the following years, and (H2) the extreme drought event (between 2015 and 2016) caused a greater water deficit in the soil of the burnt plots. Our results showed that both methods used estimated soil moisture consistently. On the interannual scale, the post-fire soil moisture did not differ much from that recorded in the intact plot (H1). On the other hand, the reduction caused by drought in soil moisture was more intense in the burnt plots (H2), requiring more time to recharge the volume of water from the soil. In addition, forests, both burned and intact, increased water use in the dry season, suggesting that the stressful conditions of seasonal drought are imposing on woody trees a greater demand for soil water, which is accessed mainly from deep soil ( up to 8m). In this sense, the increase in forest fragmentation, widespread fires and extreme drought events may cause greater variability, and even abrupt reductions in soil moisture under transition forests in a short period of time, further increasing the uncertainties for the recovery of these degraded forests.

2019
Dissertações
1
  • LAURA REZENDE SOUZA
  • Composição e diversidade de espécies lenhosas em fisionomias florestais na transição Cerrado-Floresta Atlântica

  • Data: 15/07/2019


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Devido a sua ampla distribuição, o bioma Cerrado se estende por diversos estados na região central do Brasil, associando a outros biomas através de suas areas marginais de ocorrencia, como a Amazônia e Floresta Atlantica.

2
  • ROBSON SANTANA DE OLIVEIRA
  • MUDANÇAS TEMPORAIS NA INTEGRIDADE DE AMBIENTES FLORESTAIS NAS TERRAS INDÍGENAS DO XINGU: VETORES DE MUDANÇAS E SUAS IMPLICAÇÕES 

  • Data: 26/07/2019


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • Deforestation associated with degradation factors, as forest fires and extreme droughts, has led to substantial losses in forest cover and carbon stocks in the Amazon. Reduction and degradation in forest areas have been observed even within areas protected by law, such as conservation units and indigenous lands. However, we are still not sure which factors explain the changes observed in forest environments of protected areas in the Amazon. In this study we quantify, for the last 20 years, the forest loss due to degradation processes in the Xingu Indigenous Territory (TIX). This thesis is consisted of two parts, a general introduction: the general introduction, provides a detailed description about the area had studied and a literature review about the processes that contribute to forest degradation and a research chapter. We present an integrated analysis of the forest degradation processes operating on the forests of the TIX. For this, we determined six possible vectors of change in forest integrity and used a generalized linear model (GLM), with binomial distribution, to access the variables that best explain the observed changes in forest cover. The agents of change, that is, the response variables were as follows: type of forest (upland and floodplain); number of times the area burned; population density; distance from villages; distance from major rivers; and number of extreme drought events. We had shown that reducing forest cover in Xingu is mainly associated with a higher frequency of forest fires and the occurrence of extreme droughts, but the type of forest and the distance from the indigenous villages were also important. We conclude that forest fires and extreme drought events represents a serious threat to the integrity of forests on Xingu indigenous lands, especially for seasonally flooded forests that were most vulnerable to fire.

3
  • ARINOS OLIVEIRA SERPA
  • Fisiologia térmica e risco de extinção induzido por mudanças climáticas em Gymnodactylus amarali (Squamata, Phyllodactylidae)

  • Data: 12/10/2019


  • Mostrar Abstract
  • The rapid pace of climate change poses a major threat to biodiversity conservation and unraveling how it will impact different species is a major obstacle to overcome. Because they depend on the ambient temperature for their thermoregulation, ectothermic animals are good models to understand these processes. Gymnodactylus amarali is an endemic lizard of the Cerrado, has nocturnal habits and preferentially inhabits rocky outcrops. In this study we investigate the thermal characteristics, calculate the restriction of the activity period, describe the thermal performance curve, create species distribution models based on environmental and ecophysiological data and, from them, evaluate the impact of different concentration scenarios of greenhouse gases and land use on the distribution of environmental suitability areas for the species. Our results show that the preferred and body temperatures are 26.03 ° C and 29.52 ° C, respectively. The species distribution model used for the suitability area calculations had an AUC of 95%. Today there has been a loss, due to deforestation, of 48% of areas that could be occupied by the species. In the RCP 4.5 scenario for the year 2050 these losses rise to 63% and reach 81% for the year 2070. In the RCP 8.5 scenario the losses are 79% for 2050 and 95% for 2070. When we consider different land use models, losses range from 55 to 99%. Our predictions indicate that reduced hours of activity, nocturnal habit, thermoforming ectothermy and micro-habitat specificity, together with marked reduction in suitability areas, determine a high risk of G. amarali extinction due to predicted environmental changes until the end of the century.

Teses
1
  • JHANY MARTINS DOS SANTOS
  • Diversidade de comunidades lenhosas do Bioma Cerrado e suas relações com as florestas tropicais

  • Orientador : EDDIE LENZA DE OLIVEIRA
  • Data: 24/07/2019


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  • ...

2
  • JUAN CARLO SILVA ABAD
  • Abordagens em múltiplas escalas sobre Serviços Ecossistêmicos no Sul da Amazônia Legal Brasileira, região de Transição Amazônia/Cerrado

  • Orientador : BEN HUR MARIMON JUNIOR
  • Data: 27/12/2019


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  • The welfare and survival of the human being has always depended on natural resources. With the loss of natural ecosystems in the world due to changes in land use, the services provided by these environments are gaining more emphasis in the scientific environment. Several initiatives endeavor to study interactions between human populations and ecosystems, using tools and methodologies to analyze scenarios. However, they still have limitations regarding multi-scale approaches and definition of economic values to encourage the maintenance of areas intended for the provision of ecosystem services. Thus, our work has focused on the importance of Amazonia as a service provider for society, especially the Amazon-Cerrado transition area, due to its occupation history, which can bring us relevant insights and lessons on the reflexes of our policies of territorial occupation. We study the Amazon-Cerrado transition region at different scales and find that changes in land use have been affecting the supply of ecosystem services, especially affecting the poorest and most dependent on the local scale. Our results show that the model advocated by the territorial occupation policies is built on a large scale and has deficiencies for finer scales of analysis, where a great wealth of interactions between humans and nature are observed. We did not identify evidence that such a model promotes a better distribution of wealth and, therefore, poverty reduction in the region. On the contrary, we find locally that it generally promotes the concentration of wealth and the loss of ecosystem services that are important for maintaining the quality of life of the poor. In our scenario, extensive agriculture and livestock predominate, and the activities are responsible for such results, but payment for ecosystem services can be financially attractive for a change in rural income generation. We also noted in our study that Indigenous Lands play an important role in providing ecosystem services in the region, especially maintaining water for urban supplies and productive activities.

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